Introduction to WWII Adapted from McIntyre at http://worldhistory.pppst.com Key Concept: What were the four main causes of WWII? Give an example of each. 1. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles Germany’s borders were changed, and its economy was bankrupted by reparations payments. •Treaty •of •Versailles 2. Economic Factors: All countries suffered the effects of the Great Depression, and people blamed their governments and sought change. 2 4. Appeasement and Isolationism: England and France were still recovering from WWI and unsuccessfully tried to use diplomacy to stop Hitler. Some countries, such as the United States, isolated themselves to try to avoid being drawn into other nations’ wars. 3. Nationalism: Extreme nationalism gave rise to Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany and caused Japan to colonize Asia. Quick Facts A. War Costs 1. US Debt 1940 - $9 billion US Debt 1945 - $98 billion • 3 The war cost $330 billion -- 10 times the cost of WWI & as much as all previous federal spending since 1776 Quick Facts: B. Human Costs 1. 50 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI) • 21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians) • 11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST (6 million Jews + 5 million others) 4 When? •1939-1945 •US involvement 1941-1945 1939 Sept.1 Germany invades Poland (official start to the war) 5 1941 1945 Sept. 3 - Dec. 7 – Japan May - Sept. - Atomic Britain & France declare war on Germany bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War Germans Surrender Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender Who? Allies (major powers) (major powers) Great Britain Germany Russia Italy United States Japan France (note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting) 6 Axis Major Leaders Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy 7 Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill 8 British Prime Minister Major Leaders Joseph Stalin Russian Leader Franklin Delano Roosevelt 9 US President Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Failure of Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations and wanted them back. B. War Guilt Clause Germany forced pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent). These payments bankrupted the German economy and left hopeless and embarrassed. Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles 10 C. The U.S. Congress rejected the treaty. embarrassed Germans 1) them Why? 2. Economic Factors A. The Depression made Germany’s even worse. 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutschmarks B. Desperate people turn to leaders who make them feel better about themselves and put the blame on others. In this case, Hitler blamed the former government, Jews, foreigners, communists, Roma (Gypsies), the mentally ill, and homosexuals. C. Similar situations existed in other such as Italy. 11 debt countries 1938- Evidence of Kristallnacht, or the Night of the Broken Glass Why? 3. Nationalism A. Extreme nationalism gave rise to Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany and caused Japan to colonize Asia. B. It is an extreme form of having pride in one’s country. It creates a situation in which people think, “My country and people are the best, we deserve the best, and we’re going to take it from you.” C. To support nationalism, countries increase their military strength to get what they want. 12 Why? 4. Appeasement and Isolationism A. Why was the U.S. isolationist? 1. The Great Depression caused economic problems in the U.S. 2. Perceptions of WWI: a. WWI did not seem to solve much and cost too much in money and lives. 3. People thought that the U.S. got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy businessmen!). B. This led to “Appeasement.” 1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else. 13 2. Appeasements included allowing the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and Germany’s invasion of taking of part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation. The government controls every aspect of public and private life. Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Totalitarianism Military Dictatorship (Japan) 14 Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community • What else did Hitler get? Hitler peacefully annexed (took over) in 1938. • Hitler signed a nonaggression pact USSR. Austria with the • They agreed not to fight each other and split Poland between them • Hitler would later break the pact and attack the USSR. Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939 15 • The USSR then became one of the Allies fighting Germany. How Did Hitler Make War? Blitzkrieg = “Lightning War” In the next year, Hitler invades: • Denmark • Norway • The Netherlands • France 16 Hitler in Paris US Assistance Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: Lend-Lease - 1939 • US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great Britain Atlantic Charter • US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany 17 London Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze Meanwhile … in the Pacific Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy” What? • Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Effect? • US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers USS Arizona sinking in Pearl Harbor 18 Key Concept: What were the four long-term effects of WWII? Give an example of each. Effect Examples Power Shifts U.S. and U.S.S.R become world powers, replacing England and Germany. Tensions Rise Arms Race and Cold War begin. Communism U.S.S.R. sets up satellite nations in Eastern Europe. Spreads Hope Survives 19 United Nations and Marshall Plan implemented.