You got to be careful if you don’t know where you’re going,
because you might not get there. – Yogi Berra
• Maintaining a secure environment requires that the
InfoSec department be carefully structured and staffed
with appropriately credentialed personnel
• Proper procedures must be integrated into all human
resources activities
Qualifications and Requirements
– Recognizing that InfoSec is a management task that cannot be handled
with technology alone
– Acknowledging the role of policy in guiding security efforts
– Understanding of the essential role of information security education
and training
– Perceive the threats facing an organization
– Understanding how to apply technical controls
Information Security Positions
• Types of Information security positions
– Definers
– Builders
– Administrators
• Common Positions
• Security Mgr
• Security Technician
Information Security Professional Credentials
• Many organizations rely on professional certifications
• Employers struggle to match certifications to position
• Certifying bodies work to educate their constituent
communities on the value and qualifications of their
certificate recipients
(ISC)2 Certifications - CISSP
InfoSec common body of knowledge
Access Control
Application Security
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning
Information Security and Risk Management
Legal, Regulations, Compliance and Investigations
Operations Security
Physical (Environmental) Security
Security Architecture and Design
Telecommunications and Network Security
(ISC)2 Certifications (cont’d.)
• Systems Security Certified Practitioner
– Focuses on practices, roles, and responsibilities covering seven
• Access controls
• Analysis and monitoring
• Cryptography
• Malicious code
• Networks and Telecommunications
• Risk, Response and Recovery
• Security Operations and Administration
(ISC)2 Certifications (cont’d.)
• ISSAP®: Information Systems Security Architecture
Access control systems and methodology
Telecommunications and network security
Requirements analysis and security standards, guidelines, criteria
Technology-related business continuity planning and disaster
recovery planning
– Physical security integration
(ISC)2 Certifications (cont’d.)
• ISSEP®: Information Systems Security Engineering
• ISSMP®: Information Systems Security Management
Global Information Assurance Certification
• GIAC Certifications
Information security fundamentals (GISF)
Security essentials certification (GSEC)
Certified firewall analyst (GCFW)
Certified intrusion analyst (GCIA)
Certified incident handler (GCIH)
Certified Windows security administrator (GCWN)
Certified UNIX security administrator (GCUX)
Certified forensics analyst (GCFA)
Global Information Assurance Certification (cont’d)
• GIAC Certifications (cont’d.)
Securing Oracle Certification (GSOC)
Intrusion Prevention (GIPS)
Cutting Edge Hacking Techniques (GHTQ)
Web Application Security (GWAS)
Reverse Engineering Malware (GREM)
Assessing Wireless Networks (GAWN)
• The CompTIA Security+ certification
– Tests for security knowledge mastery
– Must have two years of on-the-job networking experience with
emphasis on security
– Exam covers industry-wide topics including:
• Systems security (21%)
• Network infrastructure (20%)
• Access control (17%)
• Assessments & audits (15%)
• Cryptography (15%)
• Organizational Security (12%)
Certification Costs
• Preferred certifications can be expensive
• Certifications recognize experts in their respective fields
• Most examinations:
– Require between two and three years experience
– Structured to reward candidates who have significant
hands-on experience
Employment Policies and Practices
• Management should integrate solid information
security concepts
– Across all of the organization’s employment policies and
– Including information security responsibilities into every
employee’s job description and subsequent performance
Security as Part of Performance Evaluation
• Organizations should incorporate information
security components into employee performance
Termination Issues
• When an employee leaves an organization, the following
tasks must be performed:
Termination Issues: Hostile Departure
 Security cuts off all logical and keycard access before the
employee is terminated
 The employee reports for work, and is escorted into the
supervisor’s office to receive the bad news
 The individual is then escorted from the workplace and
informed that his or her personal property will be forwarded, or
is escorted to his or her office, cubicle, or personal area to collect
personal effects
Termination Issues: Friendly Departure
 The employee may have tendered notice well in advance of
the actual departure date
 Employee accounts are usually allowed to continue, with a
new expiration date
 The employee can come and go at will
• Usually collects any belongings and leaves without
escort, dropping off all organizational property before
Termination Issues
• In either circumstance:
– Offices and information used by departing employees must be
inventoried, their files stored or destroyed, and all property
returned to organizational stores
– Departing employees may have collected and taken home
information or assets that could be valuable in their future jobs
– Scrutinizing system logs may allow an organization to determine
whether a breach of policy or a loss of information has occurred
Personnel Security Practices
• Methods of monitoring and controlling employees
Separation of duties
Two-man control
Job rotation
Task rotation
Security of Personnel and Personal Data
• Organizations are required by law to protect sensitive or
personal employee information
– Responsibility extends to customers, patients, and anyone with
whom the organization has business relationships
• Personnel data is no different than other data that
information security is expected to protect
– But more regulations cover its protection
Security Considerations for Nonemployees
• Many individuals who are not employees often have
access to sensitive organizational information
Security Considerations for Nonemployees
• Temporary workers
• Not employed by the organization for which they’re working
• May not be subject to the contractual obligations or policies that
govern employees
• Unless specified in its contract with the organization, the
temporary agency may not be liable for losses caused by its
• Access to information should be limited to what is necessary to
perform their duties
Security Considerations for Nonemployees
• Contract employees
• Know what they need access to
• Not all contractors need universal access
• Regulations for service agreements or contracts:
– Require 24 to 48 hours’ notice
– Require all on-site personnel to undergo background checks
– Require advance notice for cancellation or rescheduling of a
maintenance visit
Security Considerations for Nonemployees (cont’d.)
• Consultants
– Have their own security requirements and contractual obligations
– Protecting your information may not be their number one priority
– Apply the principle of least privilege