FRQ Practice Hard water contains Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, which

FRQ Practice
1. Hard water contains Ca , Mg , and Fe2+, which interfere with the action of soap and leave
an insoluble coating on the insides of containers and pipes when heated. Water softeners
replace these ions with Na+. Keep in mind that charge balance must be maintained. (a) If
1500 L of hard water contains 0.020 M Ca2+ and 0.0040 M Mg2+, how many moles of Na+ is
needed to replace these ions? (b) If the sodium is added to the water softener in the form of
NaCl, how many grams of sodium chloride are needed?
2. Suppose you have 5.00 g of powdered magnesium metal, 1.00 L of 2.00 M potassium nitrate
solution, and 1.00 L of 2.00 M silver nitrate solution. (a) Which one of the solutions will
react with the magnesium powder? (b) What is the net ionic equation that describes this
reaction? (c) What volume of solution is needed to completely react with the magnesium?
(d) What is the molarity of the Mg2+ ions in the resulting solution?
3. (a) By titration, 15.0 mL of 0.1008 M sodium hydroxide is needed to neutralize a 0.2053-g
sample of a weak acid. What is the molar mass of the acid if it is monoprotic? (b) An
elemental analysis of the acid indicates that it is composed of 5.89% H, 70.6% C, and 23.5%
O by mass. What is its molecular formula?