LO4.1 Identify the reasons for
cessation of employment.
Cessation of employment
- the separation of the employee from the
organization such that his services are no
longer offered/required whether by voluntary
or involuntary means.
Cessation is classified in two forms :
• Voluntary
• Involuntary
• Voluntary Separation
- initiated for various reasons by the employee( these
are often employee who the organization would
prefer to remain within the organization)
• Involuntary Separation
- initiated for various reasons by the organization (
these are usually involving employees who would
prefer to remain within the organization)
• When employees are separated from the
organization there are usually three states which
result on the basis of the method or procedure
followed, evidence of offence and the laws which
govern the hiring and firing policies allowed .
These all result in the employees’ view of the
case. He will claim to have been either:
• Wrongfully
• Fairly or
• unfairly dismissed
Wrongful Dismissal
Wrong ful dissmal can be as a result of the
1. Violation of contract
2. Violation of public policy – this is where the
employees has been asked to do something
that is deemed to be unlawful, unethical
unsafe or immoral and was terminated as a
result of refusal to carry out said act.
• Unfair dismissal
- This is where the employee is unsatisfied with
the judgment he received in contrast to judgment
received by others.
there are two areas of fairness which if exercised
by organizations will result in a significantly less
portion of dismissed employees citing their
dismissal as unfair. These are referred to as:
1. Procedural Justice
2. Interactional Justice
Procedural Justice
The are methods used to determine the
outcome received. They are guided upon the
1. Consistency – procedures applied
consistently over time and to all individuals.
2. Bias Suppression- applied by an individual os
set of individuals with no vested interest in
the outcome of the procedure or history with
the individual in question
• Correctability- there are built in safeguards
that allow the employee to appeal mistakes
and incorrect decisions made.
• Ethicality – such that issues such as invasion of
privacy and deception are consistent with
established standards.
Interactional Justice
Refers to the interpersonal basis upon which the
outcomes of the procedure are implemented. They are
Explanation – they give light to the procedural fairness
upon witch the final decision has been made
Social Sensitivity – Treat the employees with respect
even at this stage regardless of the offence.
Consideration- give a listening ear
Empathy – Try and identify with the persons concerns
and feeling
Voluntary seperation
• Largely caused by Job Dissatisfaction. Job
dissatisfaction can be the result of a number of
Namely :
1. Pay and benefits(inadequate compensation)
2. Boredom /lack of challenge( the job)
3. Lack of opportunities for personal development
4. Supervisors and coworkers(job stress/pressure
and unfair treatment)
5. Personal (poor work/life balance)
Process leading to voluntary
stress ,boredom etc)
Voluntary separating (turnover) usually hurts
a business far more than involuntary
separation does for the following reasons
among others:
1. There is usually not enough time given to
plan and replace the employee.
2. The reasons leading to the separation is not
known and is likely to recur
3. If it is a key employee it creates significant
damage both financial and psychological
damage (to remaining employees)
Reducing Voluntary Seperation
• Change the job Environment
create a job environment where employees
feel a sense of growth and challenge. Provide
new tasks and assign greater responsibility
citing trust in employees. Provide feedback
on completion of task or stages of tasks. Give
praise and encouragement.
• Invest in employees
Provide training for your employees and
adopt strategies that affirm your commitment
in assisting them to grow such as promote
from within. Provide methods which recognize
employees efforts. The more recognized
people feel the more likely they are to remain
in an organization.
• Remain Competitive
One of the main reasons why people leave
one job to take up a post in another is
financial. Examine your compensation
packages and weigh them against that of the
competition. This must be immediate
especially for positions where there has been
investments of training and other resources
and those which can possibly halt or stagnate
the work process.
• Care
find ways of involving your employees family
in the life of the organization. Plan work
socials that family member can be
incorporated in some of the activities.
Develop employee benefit schemes such as
scholarship and grant programs.