Bringing Literature to Life
Multiple
Intelligences
in the
Classroom
By Thomas Armstrong
Eight Ways of Learning
Children who
are highly:
THINK
LOVE
NEED
in words
reading, writing, telling stories,
playing word games
books, tapes, writing tools, paper, diaries, dialogue,
discussion, debate, stories
by reasoning
experimenting, questioning,
figuring out logical puzzles,
calculating
materials to experiment with, science materials,
manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science
museums
SpatialMechanical
in images and pictures
designing, drawing, visualizing,
doodling
art, LEGOS, video, movies, slides, imagination
games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to art
museums
BodilyKinesthetic
through somatic
sensations
dancing, running, jumping,
building, touching, gesturing
role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports
and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on
learning
Musical
via rhythms and
melodies
singing, whistling, humming,
tapping feet and hands, listening
sing-along time, rips to concerts, music playing at
home and school, musical instruments
Interpersonal
by bouncing ideas off
other people
leading, organizing, relating,
manipulating, mediating,
partying
friends, groups games, social gatherings, community
events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships
Intrapersonal
in relation to their
needs, feelings and
goals
setting goals, meditating,
dreaming, planning, reflecting
secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices
Naturalist
through nature and
natural forms
playing with pets, gardening,
investigating nature, raising
animals, caring for planet earth
access to nature, opportunities for interacting with
animals, tools for investigating nature (e.g.,
magnifying glass, binoculars)
VerbalLinguistic
LogicalMathematical
Eight Ways of Teaching
Intelligence
Teaching Activities
Teaching Materials
Instructional Strategies
lectures, discussions, word games,
storytelling, choral reading, journal
writing
books, tape recorders, word
processors, stamp sets, books on
tapes
read about it, write about it, talk
about it, listen to it
brain teasers, problem solving,
science experiments, number games,
mental calculation,, critical thinking
calculators, math manipulatives,
science equipment, math games
quantify it, think critically about
it, put it in a logical framework,
experiment with it
SpatialMechanical
visual presentations, art activities,
imagination games, mind-mapping,
metaphor, visualization
graphs, maps, videos, LEGO sets, art
materials, optical illusions, camera,
picture library
see it, draw it, visualize it, color it
mind-map-it
BodilyKinesthetic
hands-on learning, drama, dance,
sports that teach, tactile activities,
relaxation exercises
building tools, clay, sports equipment,
manipulatives, tactile learning
resources
build it, act it out, touch it, get a
“gut feeling” of it, dance it
Musical
rhythmic learnings, rapping, using
songs that teach
tape recorders, tape collection,
musical instruments
sing it, rap it, listen to it
Interpersonal
cooperative learning, peer tutoring,
simulations, community involvement,
social gathering
board games, party supplies, props
for role plays
teach it, collaborate on it, interact
with respect to it
Intrapersonal
individualized instruction,
independent study, options in course
of sturdy, self-esteem building
self-checking materials, journals,
materials for projects
connect it to your personal life,
make choices with regard to it,
reflect on it
nature study, ecological awareness,
care of animals
plants, animals, naturalists’ tools,
(e.g. binoculars), gardening tools
connect it to living things and
natural phenomena
VerbalLinguistic
LogicalMathematical
Naturalist
Blooms Taxonomy
Competence
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Skills Demonstrated
* observation and recall of information *knowledge of dates, events, places *knowledge of major ideas
*mastery of subject matter
Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name,
who, when, where, etc.
*understanding information *grasp meaning *translate knowledge into new context *interpret facts,
compare, contrast *order, group, infer causes *predict consequences
Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate,
differentiate, discuss, extend
*use information *use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
*solve problems using required skills or knowledge
Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate,
change, classify, experiment, discover
*seeing patterns *organization of parts *recognition of hidden meanings *identification of components
Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select,
explain, infer
*use old ideas to create new ones *generalize from given facts *relate knowledge from several areas
*predict, draw conclusions
Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?,
compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
*compare and discriminate between ideas *assess value of theories, presentations *make choices based
on reasoned argument *verify value of evidence *recognize subjectivity
Question Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain,
discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
Blooms Taxonomy & Multiple Intelligences
(Ecology Unit: Local environment-trees in your neighborhood)
Intelligences
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
VerbalLinguistic
memorize names
of trees
explain how trees
receive nutrients
give description of
tree diseases, suggest
cause of each disease
describe how each part
of a tree functions in
relation to the whole
write a paper
describing the life
cycle of a tree
rate different
methods of
controlling tree
growth
LogicalMathematical
remember
number of points
on specific
leaves
convert English to
metric in calculating
height of tree
given height of
smaller tree, estimate
height of larger tree
analyze materials
found in sap residue
given weather, soil
etc. chart projected
growth of a tree
rate different kinds
of tree nutrients
based on data
SpatialMechanical
remember basic
configurations of
specific trees
look at diagrams of
trees and tell what
stages of growth they
are in
use geometric
principles to
determine height of
tree
draw cellular structure
of tree root
create a landscape
plan using trees as a
central feature
evaluate practicality
of different
landscape plans
BodilyKinesthetic
identify tree by
the feel of the
bark
given array of tree
fruits, identify seeds
given type of local
tree, find an ideal
place for planting
create different parts
of tree from clay
gather all materials
needed to plant a
tree
evaluate the quality
of different kinds of
fruit
Musical
remember songs
that deal with
trees
explain how old tree
songs came into being
change the lyrics of
an old song to reflect
current issues
classify songs by issue
and historical period
create your own tree
song based on
information in this
unit
rate songs from the
best to worst and
give reasons for your
choices
Interpersonal
record responses
to the question,
“What is your
favorite tree?”
determine the most
popular tree in class by
interviewing others
use survey results to
pick location for field
trip to orchard
classify kids into
groups according to
favorite tree
arrange a field trip to
orchard by
contacting necessary
people
rank three methods
to ask others about
tree preference
Intrapersonal
remember a time
you climbed a
tee
share the primary
feeling you had while
up in the tree
develop “tree
climbing rules” based
on your own
experience
divide up your
experience into
“beginning,”
“middle’” and “end”
plan a tree climbing
expedition based on
you past experience
explain what you
liked “best and
“least” about your
experience
learn to
discriminate
different tree
leaves by sight
explain how other
living beings benefit
from trees
create a system for
classifying different
tree leaves
analyze the function of
a given tree in terms
of the larger
ecosystem
plan an approach for
protecting specific
trees in your
neighborhood
evaluate which trees
in your
neighborhood are
most eco-valuable
Naturalist
Blooms Taxonomy & Multiple Intelligences
(Unit;_________________________________________________________________)
Intelligences
VerbalLinguistic
LogicalMathematical
SpatialMechanical
BodilyKinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Multiple Intelligence: Planning Questions
Verbal Linguistic
How can I use the
spoken or written word?
Naturalist
How can I incorporate
living things, natural
phenomena, or
ecological awareness?
Intrapersonal
How can I evoke
personal feelings or
memories, or give
students choices?
Logical-Mathematical
How can I bring in
numbers, calculations,
logic, classifications, or
critical thinking skills?
Objective
Interpersonal
How can I engage
students in peer sharing,
cooperative learning, or
large group simulation?
Spatial Mechanical
How can I use visual
aids, visualization, color,
art, or metaphor?
Musical
How can I bring in music
or environmental sounds,
or set key points in a
rhythmic or melodic
framework?
Bodily-Kinesthetic
How can I involve the
whole body or use handson experiences?
Multiple Intelligence: Planning Questions
Verbal Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial Mechanical
Musical
Naturalist
__________
Intrapersonal
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
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Bringing Literature to Life A Research Based, Integrated Model for