Cognitive Development - Oakland Schools Moodle

Cognitive Development
Preschool Years
Intelligence Quotient = IQ
Educators use formal intelligence tests to
assess childrens’ thinking skills
Results help to understand the
educational needs of a child
First IQ (intelligence quotient) test
developed by Alfred Binet in 1905
Revised in 1916 by Lewis Terman of
Standford University
One of the may tests used today to test
IQ – referred to as Stanford-Binet test
Average IQ
 Average child’s IQ is between 90 and 110
 Tests are composed of tasks and questions that
correspond to what a child should know at
various ages
 Critics feel that there are many drawbacks to
using a test to determine mental abilities
Drawbacks Include:
 No single test can accurately measure all of a child’s
abilities. Outside factors could influence test results
such as:
 how a child is feeling,
 what their home life is like,
 stress levels,
 culture or
 language spoken at home
 Overall, results don’t tell what strengths and weaknesses
are. Two people with the same IQ can have very different
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner presented a
different view of intelligences
 Has identified 8 intelligences:
 Bodily-Kinesthetic
 Linguistic
 Interpersonal
 Logical-mathematical
 Intrapersonal
 Spatial
 Naturalist
 Musical
8 Multiple Intelligences
Logical Mathematical
Sensitivity to language
Ability to learn and use languages
Ex. Writers, poets and lawyers
Ability to analyze problems using logic, performing
mathematical operations and explore issues
Associated with science and math research
Understanding of potential use of space, thinking 3
dimensional, imagines clear visual image
Ex. Architects, interior designers, artists, landscape
Ability to perform, compose, and appreciate musical
8 Multiple Intelligences
Bodily –
Potential to use one’s body to solve problems, using
the mind to coordinate body movements
Involves the potential to understand the intentions,
desires, and motivations of others
Ex. Teachers, counselors, and religious or political
The capacity to understand ones self including fears,
hopes and motivations
Having a good working model of ourselves and using it
to regulate our actions
Recognizing, categorizing and drawing upon the
features of the environment
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner believes that the intelligences
usually operate at the same time and
complement each other as people develop
skills and problem solve
Each person has a blend of intelligences,
but “feature” some over others
Pre-Operational Stage
– Make believe play, limited focus
Children think in terms of their own
Their perception is their reality
Learn from concrete evidence – can’t
process abstract information
Learning from Everyday Life
Talking with adults expands vocabulary
Positive comments encourage learning and
self worth
Asking a child questions or for advice can
also encourage learning and thinking
Household tasks and chores can help with
learning and give the child a sense of pride
Can make learning experiences out of just
about any situation
Learning from Books
Children can learn more then just words
Can learn about topics they wouldn’t
otherwise be able to experience
Find enjoyment in the silliness of some
Begin to distinguish between reality and
Art allows children to express
feelings, develop fine motor
skills and show creativity
Need to experiment without being
Creative process is what is important, not
necessarily the final product
Gain a sense of pride and accomplishment
when art is displayed and/or talked about
Music is intriguing to kids
Preschoolers become aware of rhythms
and enjoy singing simple repetitive songs
Enjoy creating their own music with
instruments – even homemade ones
 Positives attitudes about school are important to develop
 Smooth consistent transitions from home to school is
 Parents often use child care programs to introduce kids to
 Learn how to act in school in these capacities: following
rules, being on their own, becoming independent
Speech Development
 At this age, children have a great knowledge of
language from listening and using it
 There is a rapid increase in vocabulary during
the preschool years
 Can understand approximately 2500 different
 Articulation (clear, distinct speech) improves
 By age 6, can pronounce 90% of their words
Speech Development
 Physical development can affect speech
Sounds of b, m, and p are created by
simple lip movement
Sounds of f and v involve lips and teeth
Sounds of j, ch, st, pl, th and sl are the
most difficult. Require coordination of
the lips, tongue, and throat muscles