What makes a Nation?
What is Nationalism?
 The belief that a citizen was loyal to one another –not a
king—but to their people because of the characteristics
that they shared.
 Nationalism was the most powerful ideal of the 1800’s
and its influence spread across Europe shaping countries.
 People believed that a single nationality or ancestry
should unite under one single government.
 Nationalists believed there were “links” that bound
people together.
What links bind nations?
 Nationality-common ethnicity
 Language Culture- a shared way of life (food,
dress, behavior, ideals)
 History-common past & experiences
Religion-shared by all or most
Territory-the land that belongs to
the ethnic group
Simon Bolivar
 A wealthy creole from Venezuela
 General who led the South American
wars of independence against Spain
 Led victories in Colombia,
Venezuela, and Ecuador.
Toussant L’Overture
Toussant L’Overture
 A slave who rose as the leader of
slave revolt in Haiti against the
French plantation owners.
 He was untrained in the military but
as time went on he became a skilled
general and diplomat.
 He took control and freed all slaves in
 In January 1802, 16,000 French troops
landed in Haiti to depose Toussaint.
 Toussaint was sent to prison in the
French Alps and died 10 months later.
Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo
 Catholic priest from a small village who
believed in Enlightenment ideals led his
parishioners in a rebellion against the
 His followers began a march towards
Mexico City, which soon numbered 60, 000
 Hidalgo was defeated but his fight
continued with another strong leader.
Bernardo O’Higgins
Bernardo O’Higgins
 A Chilean independence leader who,
together with José de San Martín, freed
Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean
War of Independence.
 He is honored as one of the
Founding Fathers of Chile.
Otto Von Bismark
Otto Von Bismark
 As of 1815 Germany was a loose
confederation of 39 states with AustroHungary and Prussia dominating.
 Prussia was positioned to take control of
unification because the people were
mostly German, they had a strong
military and were industrialized.
 Otto Von Bismarck was a
conservative named to position of
Prime Minister by the Prussian king,
but needed Parliaments permission.
 He ignored Parliament and without
their permission became Prime
 In his first speech he said. “The great
questions of the day will not be settled by
speeches of by majority decisions--- that was
the great mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by
blood and iron.”
 Through various wars and “incidents” that he
manufactured, von Bismarck was able to
unite all of Germany, known as the Second
 Peninsulares- men who lived in Latin America
but were born in Spain. They were at the top of
Spanish-American Society.
 Creoles-people born to Spaniards but in Latin
America. They were ranked below Peninsulares.
 Mestizos-people of mixed European and Indian
Definitions, continued
 Romanticism- movement in art and music of
the early 19th century.
 Ideas of Romanticism- emphasized inner
feelings, emotions, imagination.
 Focus on mysterious and supernatural
 Glorified heroes and heroic action
 Cherished folk traditions, music & stories
 Literature: Grimm Brothers Fairy Tales,
Emily Bronte (Wuthering Heights), John
Wolfgang von Goethe (The Sorrows of
Young Werther), Victor Hugo (The
Hunchback of Notre Dame)
 Poets: Byron, Shelley, Keats
 Gothic Novels- Frankenstein
 What makes an Empire?
 The takeover of a country or a territory by a
stronger nation with the intent of dominating
the political, economic, and social lives of the
people of that nation.
 Examples: EnglandIndia, EnglandUS,
SpainS.America, PortugalBrazil
 Europeans believed that industrialization
and advanced technology made them
superior to non-Europeans who they
considered to be on a lower scale of
cultural and physical development.
Africa Colonized by
 Algeria-France
 Angola-Italian
Rio de Oro-Spain
 South Africa-Britain
 Congo-Belgium
 Libya-Portugal
Forms of Imperialism
 Colony- a country or region governed internally by a
foreign power
 Protectorate- country or territory has its own
government but is under control of outside power
 Sphere of influence- area in which an outside power
claims exclusive investment or trading privileges.
 Economic Imperialism- Independent but less developed
countries become controlled by private business’s
“Open Door” Policy
 The United States had always had good
trading relations with China and was
concerned that if another country came in
to colonize China they would lose the
trade position they had. The US declared
an Open Door Policy which allowed other
countries to trade with China w/o
colonizing it. China was humiliated.
Opium Wars
 To improve trade with China, which was essentially selfsufficient, Britain began smuggling in opium to China.
 Opium created economic, cultural, social problems as
millions of Chinese people became addicted to opium