KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT MRS. PELLETIER ENGLISH 3 MORAL DEVELOPMENT Moral development is the gradual development of an individuals concept of right or wrong – conscious, religious values, social attitudes and certain behavior. KOHLBERG’S THEORY Developed stages of moral development that everyone goes through In order to move from one stage to another, a person must notice a deficiency in the way he/she deals with moral dilemmas People cannot understanding moral reasoning any more than one stage beyond their development Contains 3 levels: Pre-conventional Conventional Post-conventional PRE-CONVENTIONAL STAGE 1: OBEDIENCE AND PUNISHMENT Most common in young children See rules as fixed and absolute Obeying rules as a means of avoiding punishment PRE-CONVENTIONAL STAGE 2: INDIVIDUALISM AND EXCHANGE Account for individual points of view Judge actions based on how they serve individual needs Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one’s own interests CONVENTIONAL STAGE 3: INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS “good boy-good girl” orientation Most common in teens Focused on living up to social expectations and roles (of the family, community, etc.) Good behavior means having good motives and interpersonal feelings (love, empathy, trust, and concern for others) CONVENTIONAL STAGE 4: LAW AND SOCIAL ORDER Focus on maintaining law and order and obeying laws Guided by fear of punishment as in Stage 1, but are able to explain why and deliberate on the reasoning Emphasized in education: Must attend school Must abide by the dress code POST-CONVENTIONAL STAGE 5: SOCIAL CONTRACT AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards POST-CONVENTIONAL STAGE 6: UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules CONNECTION TO THE UNIT Education: Most people agree that the role of education should be to teach academics in preparation for a future career. What about teaching morality? Should that be the role of education as well? Why or why not? The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: How does Huck’s sense of morality evolve? Where does Huck learn his sense of morality? Based on the novel, what does it mean to be educated?