18世紀前半歌劇 Week Six Neoclassicism十八世紀 Arcadia Reform (constantly) Restore opera to its classical purity Cleansing Venetian comic and bawdy scenes ( 觀眾取向 社會教化) Arcadian Academy Zeno, Griselda 不帶喜劇劇情或角色的三幕歌劇 這種由Scarlatti建立的模式，大致上由Handel (16851759), Nicola Porpora (1686-1768 Leonardo Vinci (1690130) ), Hasse (1699-1783) 繼承。 Arcadia Reform ET IN ARCADIA EGO Neoclassicism vs Classicism Aristotle: 有缺憾的英雄, 可怕的結局, 不適合啟 蒙時期, 道德指標快樂的結局 形塑的是有秩序的道德系統應該發生, 而非 實際發生 3個社會階層: 統治者, 親信, 僕人 三幕歌劇: 壞蛋, 妒忌的情人, 損友 快樂的結局: 不是依靠 運氣, 睿智; 而是緊要關 頭統治者的干預 (deus ex machina) 不是超自然 而是人 強調君主的神聖權利 Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782) He sought to promote morality through entertainment by portraying heroic characters from ancient Greek or Latin stories Opera Seria (莊歌劇)一辭 漸漸被使用 The conventional cast consists of two pairs of lovers with subordinate characters Stories usually end with a heroic deed or sublime renunciation by the principal character Music consists of alternating recitatives and arias Recitatives develop the action through dialogue Arias are soliloquys in which a principal actor reacts to the events of the previous scene Occasionally there are duets, larger ensembles, or choruses 十八世紀--歌劇型態 Opera Seria 正歌劇 1. Recitatives 2. Recitativo semplice a. Fast-moving dialogue b. Accompaniment by harpsichord and a bass instrument c. Used for most dialogue A. Recitativo obbligato a. Used for the most important dramatic situations b. The orchestra accompanies the singer and alternates with the voice 十八世紀--歌劇型態 Opera Seria 正歌劇 J. A. Hasse: Cleofide Taste: patron, audience, singer, librettist. Composer was there to serve them 包廂的社交 Dramma per muisca: a play for music vs a play through music 十八世紀--Castrato Artaserse: Farinelli Carlo Broschi (17051782) Son qual nave ch'agitata Artaserse: Farinelli Hasse: Artaserse 3 times, pasticcio Farinelli Artaserse: Farinelli Son qual nave ch'agitata /I am like a boat that beaten da più scogli in mezzo all'onde/ By the waves amidst the rocks si confonde e spaventata/ Confused and scared và solcando in alto mar/ Goes plowing in deep sea. Ma in veder l'amato / But, on seeing the beloved one lido lascia l'onde/ By the shore, leaves the waves e il vento infido, / And goes resting e và in porto a riposar. in the [safe] harbour Mertasatsio vs Farinelli 宮廷藝術 大眾娛樂 Handel (1685-1759)韓德爾的歌劇 George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) First “Classic” Orchestra music Career in Opera Handel Opera Revival Handel Legacy After his death, Handel's Italian operas fell into obscurity, save for selections such as the ubiquitous aria from Serse, "Ombra mai fù". His reputation throughout the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, particularly in the Anglophone countries, rested primarily on his English oratorios, which were customarily performed by enormous choruses of amateur singers on solemn occasions. These include Esther (1718); Athalia (1733); Saul (1739); Israel in Egypt (1739); Messiah (1742); Samson (1743); Judas Maccabaeus (1747); Solomon (1748); and Jephtha (1752). His best are based on a libretto by Charles Jennens. Since the 1960s, with the revival of interest in baroque music, original instrument playing styles, and the prevalence of countertenors who could more accurately replicate castrato roles, interest has revived in Handel's Italian operas, and many have been recorded and performed onstage. Of the fifty he wrote between 1705 and 1738, Agrippina (1709), Rinaldo (1711, 1731), Orlando (1733), Ariodante (1735), Alcina (1735) and Serse (1738, also known as Xerxes) stand out and are now performed regularly in opera houses and concert halls. Arguably the finest, however, are Giulio Cesare (1724), Tamerlano (1724) and Rodelinda (1725), which, thanks to their superb orchestral and vocal writing, have entered the mainstream opera repertoire Handel 韓德爾的歌劇 Years in Italy (1706-1710) helped lay the foundation of his style Met the major Italian composers of the time Became friends with Domenico Scarlatti 韓德爾的歌劇 London years (1710-1759) In 1710 Handel took a job in Hanover, Germany, but then took a leave of absence to produce his opera Rinaldo in London He stayed in London longer than his leave allowed According to legend, Handel composed a suite of pieces for wind instruments when the elector of Hanover became King George I of England as a way of regaining favor. (These were published under the title Water Music.) With the king and other influential people as his patrons, Handel would have a long and prosperous career in London Italian歌劇在英國 Henry的Dido and Aeneas《狄朵與埃涅阿斯》 雖然是珠玉之作然而到18世紀時，英國大 眾興致盎然地轉向義大利歌劇。英國本地 作曲家或多或少地模仿來到英國的義大利 歌劇作曲家。 Italian Opera in London A. B. C. In 1718-19 a group of wealthy gentlemen started the Royal Academy of Music to present operas to the London public Handel and others composed Italian operas for this company until 1727 In 1728 a change in taste forced the company to stop producing operas, so Handel took over the theater in 1729 Senesino For his colleagues, Handel included, Senesino (the Sienese) seems to have been the star castrato from hell: vain, insufferably arrogant, likely to throw a tantrum at the slightest provocation. But for three decades he enraptured audiences in Italy and London with the beauty of his voice (powerful, clear, equal and sweet , according to Johann Quantz) and his mastery of both the pathetic and the brilliant styles. Francesca Cuzzoni Italian Opera in London A. Handel continued to produce Italian operas during the 1730s, but in a somewhat lighter style than his 1720s operas 歌劇: Rinaldo (1710) Giulio Cesare凱撒(1724),Rodelinda (1724), Serse (1738) Rinaldo George Frideric Handel. Opera in three acts. 1711. Libretto by Giacomo Rossi, on a scenario by Aaron Hill. First performance at the King's Theatre, London, on 24th February 1711. Rinaldo CHARACTERS Goffredo, Captain General of the Christian army (male) alto Almirena, his daughter, betrothed to Rinaldo soprano Rinaldo, a Christian hero (male) mezzo-soprano Armida, a sorceress, Queen of Damascus soprano Rinaldo With his crusaders, Goffredo, who has promised Rinaldo the hand of his daughter Almirena, is attacking Jerusalem. Argante seeks a truce during which Armida, through her magic, abducts Rinaldo's beloved Almirena. Rinaldo resolves to find Almirena, now a prisoner in Argante's palace, but he is intercepted by Armida, now in the guise of Almirena, whom he rejects. Armida's anger is further aroused when Argante, thinking he is addressing Almirena, protests his love for her. Goffredo, in the third act, reaches Armida's magic mountain, helped by a magic wand, given him by a Christian magician, an aid in warding off the monsters that guard the place. In Armida's garden Rinaldo is prevented from killing the sorceress, from whose murderous intentions he has just saved Almirena, by the intervention of the Furies. The arrival of Goffredo with the magic wand transforms the garden into a desert. Argante and Armida, now reconciled, review their troops and the Christian forces prepare for battle in which they are victorious, thanks to the heroism of Rinaldo. Argante and Armida are taken prisoner but are pardoned and become Christians. Rinaldo Rinaldo was not only Handel's first opera for London but also the first Italian opera specifically written for the English capital. It won a popular success that led to Handel's return and subsequent involvement with Italian opera in London over the course of a number of years. The genre itself provoked conservative and xenophobic criticism, with Addison and Steele poking fun at the mixture of realism and impossible fantasy, the first element provided by a flock of birds set loose on the stage and thence in the auditorium. There is much fine music in the opera, but most notably the lament of the captive Almirena, Lascia ch'io pianga (Let me weep), the counterpart of Rinaldo's own lament for her loss, Cara sposa (Dear spouse). The opera is spectacular in its effects, with a final transformation scene as Armida's garden and palace are changed to a desert with a distant view of Jerusalem, and a battle to bring the forces of good their final expected victory Rinaldo Cara sposa Cara sposa, amante cara,/My dear betrothed, my dear one, dove sei? /where are you? Deh! Ritorna a' pianti miei./Come back at my tears! Del vostro Erebo sull'ara/Evil spirits, I defy you colla face del mio sdegno/with the fire of my wrath io vi sfido o spirti rei!/on your infernal altar. Rinaldo: Venti, turbini Venti, turbini, prestate/ Winds, storms, lend Le vostr'ali a questo piè./your wings to my feet. Cieli, numi, il braccio armate/Heavens, gods, strengthen my arm Contro chi pena mi diè./against those who have caused me sorrow. Rinaldo: Lascia ch'io pianga Lascia ch'io pianga / Let me weep over mia cruda sorte, /my cruel fate, E che sospiri la libertà!/ And that I long for freedom! E che sospiri, And that I long, e che sospiri la libertà! and that I long for freedom! Il duolo infranga /The duel infringes queste ritorte /these images de miei martiri /of my sufferings sol per pietà, /I pray for mercy. de miei martiri/ for my sufferances. sol per pietà. I pray for mercy. Rodelinda, regina de' Longobardi (HWV 19) is an opera seria in three acts. It was based on a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym, in turn based on an earlier libretto by Antonio Salvi. Salvi's libretto originated with Pierre Corneille's play "Pertharite, roi des Lombards". It was first performed at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket, London, on 13 February 1725. It was produced with the same singers as Tamerlano. There were 14 performances and it was repeated on 18 December 1725, and again on 4 May 1731. It was also performed in Hamburg. The first modern production was in Göttingen on 26 June 1920. Rodelinda: Dove sei Dove sei, amato bene? Where are you, my beloved? Vieni, l'alma a consolar. Come and comfort my heart. Sono oppresso da' tormenti I am stricken with anguish ed i crudeli miei lamenti and only by your side sol con te posso bear. can my cruel sorrow be lightened Ombra mai fu, Serse's aria from Serse Frondi tenere e belle Tender and beautiful fronds Del mio Platano amato, of my beloved plane tree, Per voi risplenda il Fato Let Fate smile upon you . Tuoni, Lampi, e Procelle May thunder, lightning, and storms Non vi oltraggino mai la cara pace, never bother your dear peace, Ne giunga a profanarvi Austro rapace. Nor may you by blowing winds be profaned. Ombra mai fu Never was made Di Vegetabile, A vegetable (a plant) Care ed amaile more dear and loving Soave piu. or gentle.