Standard 8 Notes

SSUSH8 The student will explain the
relationship between growing northsouth divisions and
westward expansion.
• a. Explain how slavery became a significant
issue in American politics; include the slave
rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of
abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison,
Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).
• Planters in the South depended on slaves to
work their huge cotton fields.
• Why would Southern politicians fight to keep
slavery for the South?
• However, in the North they had a more
industrialized economy.
• Most Northern states had already freed their
slaves and outlawed slavery by the mid 1800s.
Abolitionist Movement
• Who was the person we talked about that was
the main person behind the abolitionist
• Grimke Sisters- These sisters were members of
a prominent slaveholding family in South
Carolina who then became abolitionists and
gained respect from their passionate antislavery speeches.
Frederick Douglass
• Escaped slavery in Maryland then taught
himself and became the most prominent
African American speaker for the abolitionist
Nat Turner
• He was a preacher and thought that he had a
divine mission to deliver his people from
• Met secretly with slaves for over 4 months
and then early one morning they went and
killed every white person they could find.
• b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the
issue of slavery in western states and
Missouri Compromise
• This was the struggle of adding Missouri as a
new state and whether or not it would be a
slave or free state.
• Why would the free states fear it being a slave
• Finally the compromise said that the state
would act as a dividing line and any state
north of the line was free and any south was
• c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the
emergence of states’ rights ideology; include
the role of John C. Calhoun and development
of sectionalism.
Nullification Crisis
• Nullification- The state has the right to nullify
or invalidate any federal law.
• Conflict between states’ rights and federal
authority reached a boiling point in the early
• South Carolina began protesting high tariffs on
British goods.
John C. Calhoun
• Wrote Exposition and Protest.
• Calhoun’s argument was for states’ rights and his
strong belief in the doctrine of nullification.
• He claimed that any state that felt the laws were
unconstitutional could refuse that law.
• President Jackson was enraged and threatened to
handle Calhoun and said he was prepared to call
federal troops to make sure SC complied.
• The regional differences between the North
and South.
• North called more on the national
government to limit, or end slavery.
• The South rallied around states’ rights, which
made people like John C. Calhoun heroes.
• d. Describe the war with Mexico and the
Wilmot Proviso.
War with Mexico
• Conflict between the United States and
Mexico(1846-1848) following the annexation
of Texas(1845)
• The War lasted a year and a half and ended
with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which
forced Mexico to give up modern day
California and New Mexico for $15 million
War with Mexico (cont)
• The US also agreed to pay an additional $3.25
million for debts owed by Mexico to
• In addition, Mexico now recognized the Rio
Grande as the border between Texas and
Wilmot Proviso
• David Wilmot, a Pennsylvania congressman,
had ideas about what to do with any land the
United States was sure to gain with a victory
against Mexico in the Mexican-American War.
• He introduced a proviso(condition) that said
any land gained from Mexico would be free
Wilmot Proviso(cont)
• Wilmot tried to tie his proviso in at the end of
the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but was
unsuccessful as it passed the House of Reps,
but not the Senate
• This contributed greatly to growing tensions in
sectionalism between the North and South
e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose
out of territorial expansion and population
Compromise of 1850
• The battle between what to do with the
territory gained from Mexico continued for
several years, concluding with the
Compromise of 1850
• The biggest part of this was California was
added to the US as a free state (it was
previously a territory)
Compromise of 1850(comp)
• Other provisions of the Compromise:
• Slave trade abolished in Washington D.C.
• Popular sovereignty used in New Mexico and
Utah territories, meaning the people of those
could vote on the issue of slavery
• Tougher fugitive slave act which said that
escaped slaves must be returned to their