I don't know. - University of Pittsburgh

Build a Balanced Speech
 Introduction-10%
of the speech
Gain audience attention via an example,
quote, statistics or a visual aid
State the Central Thesis (the main idea)
Establish your credibility
Identify with the audience and recognize the
Preview the main points, in the same order
they will appear in the speech
Build a Balanced Speech
 Body-80%
of the speech
Use 3-5 main points
Give balanced attention to each section
 Conclusion-10%
of the speech
This is a mirror image of introduction, with a review
Refer back to the attention-getter in the introduction
(e.g., a vivid example)
Don’t introduce new information
End with authority, and always on time
Employ Frequent Transitions
 Transitions
help adult learners know
what to expect
 Transitions link the main parts of the
speech, and create a smooth flow
 Transitions can review, and then preview
main points
 Transitions can be long or short
Single words, phrases or sentences
Examples of Transitions
 “Now
that we have reviewed the problem
of homelessness, let’s examine three
main causes…”
 “The
second major problem is…”
 “Next,
 “That
 “The
we will consider..”
brings us to…”
final point…”
Employ Humor With Care
Where humor is concerned, there are no
standards - no one can say what is good or
bad, although you can be sure that everyone
John Kenneth Galbraith
Use Varied and Multiple
Types of Evidence and Support
 Examples
Vivid success stories or brief scenarios
 Visual
aids or models
 Expert testimony
Quotes attributed to an expert enhance the
speaker’s credibility
 Statistics
Be sure to round off and interpret
There are three kinds of lies:
lies, damned lies and
Benjamin Disraeli
Statistics always remind me
of the fellow who drowned in a
river whose average depth
was three feet.
Woody Hayes
Coach, Ohio State Football
Always provide people
with a context to help
them understand.
Richard E. Moran
A talk is a voyage with a
purpose, and it must be
charted. The man who starts
out going nowhere,
generally gets there.
Dale Carnegie
Strategically Choose Your
Organizational Pattern(s)
 Chronological
(in order of occurrence, as
in a historical perspective)
 Topical
(by subject)
 Spatial
(by physical position, as in
 Problem-Cause-Solution
 Problem-Solution
 Monroe’s
Motivated Sequence
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
 Attention
Create interest in the problem
 Need
Analyze problem characteristics and
relate these to the audience needs
 Satisfaction
Propose a course of action that eliminates
the problem and satisfies audience needs,
desires and wants
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
 Visualization
Verbally depict the world as it will exist if
the plan is or is not instituted, and contrast
these possibilities
 Action
Call for audience commitment and action
Be specific
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is commonly
used in advertising to persuade…
Delivery Tips
 A speaker is always “on stage”
 They are “on” from moment they are announced, to
the time they return to their place in the audience
 Pause
before beginning
 Vary intonation
 A slightly faster pace increases audience
 Maintain good eye contact
 Assume a relaxed, open posture,
with few self-adaptors/touch
(Sometimes, “less” is “more”)
Talk low, talk slow and
don’t say too much.
John Wayne
The right word may be
effective, but no word was
ever as effective as a
rightly timed pause.
Mark Twain
To Minimize Anxiety
 Convert
Recognize that mild arousal is normal
 Seek
anxiety to presentational energy
public speaking opportunities
More speaking experience=less anxiety
 Avoid
 Eat and sleep enough
 Deep breathing, activity and
relaxation may help
Practice the Presentation
Your emotional state
 Transitions (this is where many speakers
experience the most difficulty)
 Introduction and Conclusion
Become Familiar With the Room
 Messages
are perceived better
in an attractive room
 Check-out
the sound system
and lighting
 Become
familiar with audiovisual (AV)
 Plan
for water, pointer, etc.
Always Have A Back-Up Plan
 What
if the AV fails?
Have a lo-tech back-up
 What
if your available time
is diminished?
Eliminate sub-points
Don’t speed rate
 What
if you misplace your speech?
Keep an extra copy, or quickly construct an
 What
Remember that most speakers make them
Correct it; humor is ok
Move ahead
Don’t apologize profusely or start over
 How
if I make a mistake?
can I avoid saying “Um?”
Employ speaking transitions
Tolerate silence
can I slow down?
Pause between sections. Stop at the
end of sentences. Underline key
 Tape record your practice sessions and
count the words per minute. Then,
practice speaking at a deliberately
slower rate to gain conscious control
over rate.
about eye contact?
Don’t bob your head up and down
 Don’t fix your gaze at one person
 Look up at the end of a section, rather
than lose your place, or train of thought
 Face the audience, not your slides
 Look more at friendly, supportive people
 Don’t favor one side of the room
 Increased eye contact increases audience
do I do with my hands?
Don’t play with your hair, clothes,
objects or jingle money in your pockets
 Don’t worry about your gestures--they
will emerge naturally
 Keep your hands on or near the
podium, or at your sides. Don’t cross
your arms, or clasp your hands in front
of your body.
Audience Q&As
 Anticipate
Draft answers
 Listen
potential questions
to the question
Read the emotion
 Don’t
get defensive and never embarrass
an audience member
 Maintain
 Admit
an open and relaxed posture
to not having an answer
“I really can’t speak to that;
I will refer that concern to….”
I’m glad this question came up,
in a way, because there are so many
ways to answer it that one if them is
bound to be right.
Robert Benchley
I was gratified to be able to answer
promptly. I said, “I don’t know.”
Mark Twain
In Closing
 Speaking
in public represents an
opportunity to enhance knowledge,
change attitudes, and promote action
 Most
importantly, strive to communicate
with your audience and to meet their
unique needs
 The
speaker has a responsibility to
communicate publicly in an informed and
ethical manner
Cohn, E. Public Speaking,
University of Pittsburgh
Center for Instructional Development
& Distance Education,
Fifth Edition, January 2001.