Social Studies Chapter 5 “A Community’s Geography” Lesson 1, pp. 146-151 Geography is the study of Earth’s features. You can describe a place by its physical features—its water, land, climate, and plant life. Landforms are kinds of land. Examples: mountains, valleys, plains, plateaus The Andes Mountains form the longest continuous mountain range in the world. (4,500 miles!!) Deserts are places with very dry climates. The plant life in a place depends on the climate and the soil. Lesson 2, pp. 154-158 People add human features to Earth, such as buildings, bridges, roads, farms, and mines. Paths between one place and another are called routes. Routes make it possible to move both people and goods. The Pan-American highway is a route that connects countries (North and South America.) Crossroads are where two routes meet. Lesson 2, Continued Farms provide plants and animals for food. Mines are human features below the earth where minerals are found. Minerals are natural resources, such as iron and gold. Lesson 3, pp. 160-165 An environment is made up of all the physical features, human features, and conditions of a place. People have found ways to adapt, or change, to suit their climate. One way they heat and cool their homes is by burning fuels, or natural resources, such as oil, coal, and wood, to get enerty for heat and electricity. Lesson 3, Continued People often live near natural resources. A harbor is a protected place with deep water that allows ships to come close to the shore. Portland’s natural harbor has made the city one of the largest fishing centers in the U.S. People have also found ways to change the physical features of Earth. They cut tunnels through mountains to build railroads. They have made mountaintops flat to build farms and cities. They build waterways called canals.