Evaluating Evidence - PROP

Evaluating Evidence PROP Procedure
• When you consider a source of information about an event,
always apply the props method to determine how
believable the source is.
• 1st ask yourself, is there a source for the information?
– If no, the information is unsupported and weakened.
Choose a more reliable/truthful source.
• If yes, evaluate it: EXPLAIN!!!
– P – primary or secondary?
– R – reason to lie or exaggerate?
– O – other evidence to verify this evidence?
– P – public or private?
P- Primary or secondary
• Primary source is evidence given by a
person present at event. It can also be
an object that was part of event.
• Primary sources are more desired.
• You should look to collect as many
primary sources as possible to create
clearer picture of event.
• Collect secondary sources only when
primary sources are unavailable.
R - Reason to lie/distort
• People have reasons to lie
– Make themselves or their group look good
– To help their own interests (i.e. to make money)
• Does the person giving the statement, writing
the document, recording the audio, or
identifying the object benefit from the truth
being distorted, covered up , falsified
sensationalized, or manipulated?
• Witnesses with no reason to do the above are
more desirable.
O- Other evidence
• Is there more information that reports
the same data?
– Witnesses
– Statements
– Recordings
– Evidence
• Having other evidence to verify adds
strength to your argument.
P – Public or private
• Public if…
– …the person knew that others would see,
hear or read what they said.
• Private if…
– …the person stated the information in
confidence or privacy.
• Private is judged more accurate
because it was probably more likely to
reflect the speaker’s true feeling or
Criteria for Evaluating Evidence
Is it a primary (more reliable) or a
secondary (less reliable) source?
Does the person giving the evidence have
no reason to lie (more reliable)?
Is there other evidence which supports or
verifies what this evidence says (more
reliable) or is this the only evidence
presented on this topic (less reliable)?
Is it a public (less reliable) or private
(more reliable) statement? It is public if
the person giving it knew others would
read or see it.