 Plot
 Characters
 Stage
The plot in a drama introduces character
interactions that create a conflict.
 Many plays have acts that separate the play
into parts, just like chapters of a book.
 Each act is separated into scenes, and each
scene is usually one building block of the plot.
Characters in a play are similar to characters in
fictional texts.
The main character is usually the protagonist.
The protagonist is at the center of the conflict
and goes through major changes throughout
the play. This is usually (but not always) “the
good guy.”
The antagonist is the character who opposes
the protagonist, AKA “the bad guy.”
Stage directions are instructions in a play
that tell directors, set/lighting designers,
performers, and readers what is
› Stage directions are usually in italic text.
› They usually appear in (parentheses) when
being used within dialogue.
Written conversation between two
or more characters.
› In drama (play), the stories of what is
taking place are told through dialogue.
› Playwrights use stage directions to show
how they intend the dialogue to be
interpreted by the actors.
humorous play that is usually
meant to keep the audience
A farce presents:
› Ridiculous situations
› Comedic dialogue
› Physical humor
› Exaggerated behavior and language
Absurd plots with humorous conflicts
Exaggerated behavior and language
› Physical humor
› Comic dialogue
Characters who often exhibit just one
comic trait or quality
 Clever wordplay, including puns and
double meanings (verbal irony)
› This is a pun:
“Outside of a dog, a book is man’s best
friend. Inside of a dog it is too dark to read.”
–Groucho Marx
While we read The Sneeze, visualize
details, description, and dialogue to
create mental images of what is
happening. Try doing this:
› Read the stage directions to form a mental
image of the setting and actions taking
› Pay attention to the narrator’s description of
the other characters.
› Use your own imagination and sense of
Who makes you laugh?
› Think of a person who can really make you
› What does this person do that you find so