fall of ghana rise of mali

•Traders tired of paying high protection taxes
found alternate caravan routes reducing Ghana’s
•The government is having difficulty supporting
and protecting the large population of people
who have moved to their lands. This leads to lack
of trade supplies and creates food shortages.
•In 1060 the Almoravids, a group of Berbers try and
attack Ghana from the NW.
•They wanted to expand their Muslim faith, have
control of the gold mines and utilize Ghana’s farmland
to graze their animals.
•The Almoravids FAIL, but it weakens Ghana and they
NEVER regain their former wealth or strength. The
empire of Ghana is NO MORE 
Power Struggles
•After Ghana fell, the power of the land
returned to the individual
districts/kingdoms. There were constant
battles for land and power.
In 1203 Sumanguru took over what
was left of the Ghana Empire. He
was a cruel leader and killed those he
felt threatened his power.
In 1230 the neighboring Kingdom of
Malinke led a rebellion to overthrow
•The rebellion was lead by Sundiata. He took over in
1235, creating the Kingdom of Mali. These new lands
included the former lands of Ghana and much more.
Sundiata was nicknamed
the Lion King. He was
considered a great and
wise leader.
• He called himself MANSA which means “emperor”.
• Re-established Trade Routes with protection and took control of
gold mines.
• Increased kingdoms wealth by
trading gold, salt, cloth, books and
copper with Egypt and N. Africa.
Mansa Musa
Had army clear farmland to help people get back on
their feet. Introduced the crop of cotton.
Continued attitude of religious freedom and tolerance
although he was a practicing Muslim.
Ruled with an assembly of kings to establish laws such
as who could own property, how individuals should act
and how social classes would be determined.
Ruled for 25 years and was loved by his people.
Power was passed down through his bloodlines
to his son Wali then his son Mansa Musa.
•Ruled Empire of Mali from 1312-1337
•Continued practicing Islam like his
grandfather and turned Mali into a center of
Muslim learning and art
•Opened a university for Islamic scholarship
in Timbuktu
•Left Mali for his once in a lifetime pilgrimage to
Mecca in 1324 returning one year later.
•His caravan had 12,000 officials and slaves in it and
80 camels loaded with gold dust and nuggets.
Mansa Musa’s Continued
•He stopped in Egypt during his hajj and it
is rumored that he spent so much gold there
he upset the economy for years.
•His trip brought worldwide attention and
travelers to the Kingdom of Mali.
•By the 1400’s rulers of Mali began losing
control of the empire.
•In 1464 the Songhai Kingdom took over
the lands of the Mali Empire including
the city of Timbuktu
•This empire was larger than the Empires
of Ghana or Mali.
•First leader of Songhai was Sunni Ali who was a great
military leader
•Arabic was used in the writing of the
laws of the empire and spoken across the
empire to create a common trade
language and cementing the practice of
Islam in North Africa.
The last great leader Askia Muhammad had to
step down due to health issues in 1529 leaving
his sons to argue and compete against each other
for control of land weakening the empire.
In 1591 the country of Morocco
invaded Songhai. Armed with
guns they took control of the
empire and the once thriving cities
like Timbuktu fell in ruin.
Tomb of Askia Muhammad