# Chapters 1-3 Test Review 2015

```APES year in review –
chapters 1-3
2016, The
year
everyone
gets a 5!
Answers to chapter 1 pages 23-24
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
D
B
B
B
C
E
B
8 E
9 D
10 A
Answers to chapter 2 page 49-50
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
B
D
E
C
A
B
E
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
C
B
E
D
C
E
A
Answers to chapter 3 pages 82-83
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
D
D
E
D
A
E
A
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
B
E
E
B
B
E
C
B
Know how to………..




Convert with dimensional analysis
Make sense of the half life table
Use percentages (efficiency p 40)
Make sense of the pH scale
Easter Island
Sustainability
-Inhabitatants of Easter Island cut
down the trees to build their houses
faster than the trees could grow
back. Was that sustainable?
How many Earth’s would be
required if everybody has the
same ecological footprint as the
citizens of the United States?
How many Earth’s would be
required if everybody has the
same ecological footprint as the
citizens of the United States? 8
What temperature water will
support the fish that need the most
oxygen?
What temperature water will
support the fish that need the most
oxygen? COLD Water
Which of these countries have
the largest ecological footprint?
Developed Countries

(Denmark)
Developing Countries

Latin America, China, Africa (Kenya)


1/5 of the world’s pop. Lives in absolute
poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and don’t
have enough food
80% of world’s pop. Lives in developing co.
and growing
Which of these countries have
the largest ecological footprint?
Developed Countries

(Denmark)
Developing Countries

Latin America, China, Africa (Kenya)


1/5 of the world’s pop. Lives in absolute
poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and don’t
have enough food
80% of world’s pop. Lives in developing co.
and growing
When energy is transformed the ability to do
work decreases even though the quantity of
energy does not change.

Describe the 2nd law of thermodynamics
When energy transfers from one form to another or
from one trophic level to the one above some of the
energy does not make it to the other form or the
next trophic level. What form does this “missing”
energy take?
When energy transfers from one form to another or
from one trophic level to the one above some of the
energy does not make it to the other form or the
next trophic level. What form does this “missing”
energy take? HEAT
Is the earth an open or closed system
in regards to solar energy?
Is the earth an open or closed system in
regards to solar energy? Open because the
sun’s solar rays travel through space, are
absorbed/reflected by the earth and
atmosphere and then are reradiated back to
space.
pH = 1.6
How many times
more acidic is
stomach acid
compared to
rainwater?
pH = 1.6
How many times more
acidic is stomach acid
compared to
rainwater? Rainwater
is ph 5.6 so stomach
acid is 10,000 times
more acidic than
rainwater
What happened to the
salinity of Mono Lake
water from Walker Creek,
which fed the lake, to the
people of Los Angeles?
YLHS
What happened to the
salinity of Mono Lake
water from Walker Creek,
which fed the lake, to the
people of Los Angeles?
Salinity increased
YLHS
When the salinity of Mono Lake
increased, what happened to the algae
population and the population of brine
shrimp?
When the salinity of Mono Lake
increased, what happened to the algae
population and the population of brine
shrimp? Decreased
The half life of a radioactive sample is 2,000
years. If 12.5 grams of a 400 gram sample is
radioactive, how old is the sample in years?
The half life of a radioactive sample is 2,000
years. If 12.5 grams of a 400 gram sample is
radioactive, how old is the sample in years?
12.5 g/400 g =
1/32. 1/32 = 5
half lives. 5 half
lives times 2000
years = 10,000
years.
Krypton-85 has a half life of 11 years. How
long will it take for it to loose &frac34; of its
Krypton-85 has a half life of 11 years. How
long will it take for it to loose &frac34; of its
2 half lives
represent &frac34;
stable
daughter
products. 2
times 11 =
22 years.
Convert 5 calories into joules
Common Units and Their Conversions
Unit
Definition
Relationship to
Joules
Common Uses
calorie
Energy to heat
1 gram of
water 1ْ C
1 calorie = 4.184 joules
energy transfer in
ecosystems
Calorie
Food calorie
always shown
with capital C
1 Calorie = 1000
calories= 1 Kilocalorie
Food labels
British
Thermal
Unit (Btu)
Energy to heat
1 pound of
water 1ْ C
1 Btu = 1,055 joules
Energy transfer
in air conditioners
and home water
heaters.
KilowattEnergy
1kWh = 3,600,000 J =
hour (kWh) expended by
3.6 mega-joules (MJ)
using 1kW of
electricity for 1
hour
Energy used by
electrical
appliances kWh
per year
Convert 5 calories into joules 5 calories x 4.184 joules/ calorie =
20.92 joules
Common Units and Their Conversions
Unit
Definition
Relationship to
Joules
Common Uses
calorie
Energy to heat
1 gram of
water 1ْ C
1 calorie = 4.184 joules
energy transfer in
ecosystems
Calorie
Food calorie
always shown
with capital C
1 Calorie = 1000
calories= 1 Kilocalorie
Food labels
British
Thermal
Unit (Btu)
Energy to heat
1 pound of
water 1ْ C
1 Btu = 1,055 joules
Energy transfer
in air conditioners
and home water
heaters.
KilowattEnergy
1kWh = 3,600,000 J =
hour (kWh) expended by
3.6 mega-joules (MJ)
using 1kW of
electricity for 1
hour
Energy used by
electrical
appliances kWh
per year
A metric ton of anthracite coal can produce
10,000 MJ of electricity. Given these
efficiencies, how much energy is produced
as incandescent light?
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
A metric ton of anthracite coal can produce
10,000 MJ of electricity. Given these
efficiencies, how much energy is produced as
incandescent light? 10,000 MJ x .35 *.9 * .05
= 157.5 MJ of incandescent light.
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
Do these calculations violate the second law
of thermodynamics? 10,000 MJ x .35 *.9 * .05
= 157.5 MJ of incandescent light.
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
Do these calculations violate the second law
of thermodynamics? 10,000 MJ x .35 *.9 * .05
= 157.5 MJ of incandescent light. No, energy
is not lost to the system, it is transferred into
heat.
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
When coal is burned, most of the energy is
transformed into __________
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
When coal is burned, most of the energy is
transformed into __heat________
Heat
Heat
Heat
65%
35%
1 metric ton of coal
burned has 24,000 MJ
8,400 MJ of electricity is
produced
10% of the energy is lost to
heat and sound when
electricity is carried along
power lines- transmission of
energy is 90% efficient
Incandescent
light bulbs are
only 5% efficient
Which is a positive feedback loop and which is
a negative feedback loop?
Which is a positive feedback loop and which is
a negative feedback loop?
Positive
Negative
Is this a positive or negative feedback
loop?
Is this a positive or negative feedback
loop?
Positive
Positive or negative feedback loop?
Positive or negative feedback loop?
Positive
The Restoration Plan for the Everglades

How would the following two actions
●Removing inland levees and canals that were used
to prevent the natural flow of water and control
flooding.
 Water conservation: redirecting fresh water to
restored wetlands instead of letting it drain to the
ocean.
The Restoration Plan for the Everglades

How would the following two actions
●Removing inland levees and canals that were used
to prevent the natural flow of water and control
flooding.
 Water conservation: redirecting fresh water to
restored wetlands instead of letting it drain to the
ocean.
of grass that depend
on water flow.
Removing levees
would increase the
flow of fresh water.
If you left the door of a refrigerator
open, would the Earth get cooler?
If you left the door of a refrigerator
open, would the Earth get cooler? No,
why?
If you left the door of a refrigerator
open, would the Earth get cooler? No,
why? Second law of thermodynamics,
think of all the heat generated to make
electricity.
What type of habitat is the Florida
What type of habitat is the Florida
river of grass, swamp
In what way was the saving of Mono
similar?
In what way was the saving of Mono
similar? Water flow was increased to
both
Trophic Relationship
Put the following in order
from greatest biomass to
least biomass:
Tertiary consumers,
producers, primary
consumer, secondary
consumer
Trophic Relationship
Put the following in order
from greatest biomass to
least biomass:
, producers, primary
consumer, secondary
consumer, Tertiary
consumers
Give an example of an autotroph.
Where does it get its energy?
Give an example of an autotroph.
Where does it get its energy?
Plant, algae, bacteria or
phytoplankton
Energy comes from the sun through
photosynthesis
Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

How much energy from one trophic level (producers)
moves to the next trophic level (primary consumers)?
Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

How much energy from one trophic level (producers)
moves to the next trophic level (primary consumers)?
10%
Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

How much solar energy is captured by the
autotrophs?
Biomass and Biomass Pyramid

How much solar energy is captured by the
autotrophs? 1%

If 80,000 j of
energy comes
from the sun to an
ecosystem, how
much energy will
be in the
secondary
consumers?



If 80,000 j of energy comes from
the sun to an ecosystem, how
much energy will be in the
secondary consumers? 80,000j x
.01= 800j
800j x .1 = 80j
80j x .1 = 8j
If you are given the gross primary
production of 1 hectare of coastal sage
scrub, how do you calculate the net
primary production of that area?
If you are given the gross primary
production of 1 hectare of coastal sage
scrub, how do you calculate the net
primary production of that area?
Subtract cellular respiration
Name the process in which water
moves from plants to the atmosphere.
Name the process in which water
moves from plants to the atmosphere.
What happens to the net primary production
of an ecosystem when you add a limiting
factor?
What happens to the net primary production
of an ecosystem when you add a limiting
factor? NPP increases
Carbon cycle

Name 3 ways
carbon can
enter the
atmosphere.
Carbon cycle

Name 3 ways
carbon can
enter the
atmosphere.
Cellular
respiration,
burning fossil
fuels, burning
trees,
deforestation,
volcanoes, etc.
Burning fossil fuels increases the
amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
What happens to the temperature of
the earth if the concentration of CO2
in the atmosphere increases?
Burning fossil fuels increases the
amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
What happens to the temperature of
the earth if the concentration of CO2
in the atmosphere increases? Earth’s
temperature increases.
List the 3 reactants for
photosynthesis.
List the 3 reactants for
photosynthesis. Sunlight, Carbon
Dioxide, Water
Nitrogen cycle

Where is the
biggest nitrogen
reservoir that is
accessible to living
systems?
Nitrogen cycle

Where is the
biggest nitrogen
reservoir
accessible to living
organisms? The
atmosphere is
78% nitrogen.
Nitrogen cycle


Explain what will
happen when
legumes are
planted in a
grassland
ecosystem.
Why will it
happen?
Nitrogen cycle


Explain what will happen
when legumes are planted
in a grassland ecosystem.
Nitrate level will increase
Why will it happen?
Legumes have nodules that
provide a home for bacteria
which fix nitrogen
Phosphorus cycle

Is there a gas phase in the
phosphorous cycle?
Phosphorous is a limiting factor in
phosphorous to a lake decrease
biodiversity of the lake?
Phosphorus cycle

Is there a gas phase in the
phosphorous cycle? No
Phosphorous is a limiting factor in
phosphorous to a lake decrease
biodiversity of the lake?
Eutrophication and could cause
levels to become extinct.
What caused the fish kill in the
Neusse River?
What caused the fish kill in the
Neuse River? To many nutrients
in the river caused Pfisteria to
target fish.
What does deforestation do to the
nutrient levels of streams that
areas?
What does deforestation do to the nutrient
levels of streams that receive runoff from
deforested areas? Nutrient levels
increase initially.
During eutrophication, what
happens to the oxygen level?
During eutrophication, what happens
to the oxygen level? O2 level
decreases becomes hypoxic or anoxic.
During eutrophication, what does
the addition of limiting nutrients do
to the algae population?
During eutrophication, what does the
addition of limiting nutrients do to the
algae population? Increases # of
algeas
Which hydrologic process drives
eutrophication?
Which hydrologic process drives
eutrophication? Runoff
What is the difference between
infiltration and runoff?
What is the difference between
infiltration and runoff? Runoff is on
surface, infiltration is subsurface.
What is the difference between
ecosystem resilience and ecosystem
resistance?
What is the difference between
ecosystem resilience and ecosystem
resistance? Resilience how fast an
ecosystem comes back after a shock,
and resistance is how hard a shock an
ecosystem can take before it changes.
wind
Which side of the
Mountains will
support giant
sequoias, a
redwood tree
species that
requires abundant
precipitation?
element
Main
nonliving
reservoir
Carbon
C
Atmo
CO2
Nitrogen Atmo
N2
N
Main living
reservoir
P
Human-induced problem
Carbohydrate
s (CH2O)n
And all
organic
molecules
Hydro
Carbonate
(CO3-2)
Bicarbonate
(HCO3-)
Litho
minerals
Global warming
Carbon from fossil fuels
underground are burned
and released into the air
as CO2
Proteins and
other Ncontaining
organic
molecules
Hydro
Ammonium
NH4+
Nitrate
NO3Nitrite NO2-
Eutrophication
Fertilizers contain
that end up in the water
Litho
DNA
Phosphorous rocks as ATP
PO4-3
*no gas
phase
Other
nonliving
reservoir
Hydro
Phosphate
phospholipids PO4-3
Eutrophication
Fertilizers contain
that end up in the water
Cutting down rainforest
stops recycling of P
What is the name of this effect?
YLHS
YLHS
Mono Lake
Excellent example of human interference
with the water supply.
 The water in the lake was diverted from
the lake to the city of Los Angeles. It
became a salt bed.
 ↑ Salt concentration due to evaporation
Three Gorges Dam in China
 China needs to meet the growing demand
for energy
 Huge environmental impact
 Hundreds of thousands of people will be
displaced (not to mention the ecosystems
which will be flooded)

Acids and Bases
pH-log of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Therefore each number higher on the pH
scale is 10X more basic





Basic- OH- (hydroxyl ions) over 7 on the
pH scale
Acidic-H+ ions under 7 on the pH scale
Neutral- pure water is 7 on the pH scale
Normal rain is slightly acidic-pH 6.4
Acid rain is defined as less than a pH of
5.5
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