Part 1 - Multiple Choice. Circle one answer only. If you change your mind, cross out the original choice and circle the new answer Respiratory System What are the serous membranes associated with the lungs known as? A. B. C. D. The pulmonary membranes The pleural membranes The parietal membranes The cardiac membranes What are the air sacs that make up the lungs called? A. B. C. D. Alveoli Nephrons Lobules Neurons What is one of the main muscles of respiration? A. B. C. D. Rectus abdominus Diaphragm Deltoid Gluteus maximus What does the cilia that lines the trachea do? A. B. C. D. it stimulates the production of mucus it is where nutrient absorption takes place it traps bacteria that would otherwise enter the lungs it humidifies inhaled air What is the main function of the upper airways? A. B. C. D. heating or cooling inhaled air filtering inhaled particles humidifying inhaled air all of the above are functions of the upper airways The epiglottis closes over the opening to the: A. B. C. D. larynx nasal passage trachea oesophagus Once inhaled air passes through the pharynx, what is the next structure it would enter? A. B. C. D. the external nares the larynx the trachea the primary bronchus Where does the unloading of carbon dioxide take place? A. B. C. D. in the alveoli in the lungs in the terminal bronchioles in the conducting pathways in the systemic circuit How does the exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) take place? A. B. C. D. via osmosis via simple diffusion via active transport requiring ATP via channel mediated diffusion Oxygen combines with hemoglobin to form a compound known as: A. B. C. D. carbonic acid bicarbonate ion oxyhemoglobin carbon dioxide What is the name for the voice box? A. B. C. D. Larynx Pharynx Epiglottis Trachea Special Senses Which structure conducts images from the retina to the brain? A. B. C. D. the lens the pupil the optic nerve the cornea Which of the following is a structure of the inner ear? A. B. C. D. pinna tympanic membrane cochlea Eustachian tube Which of the special senses is considered out dominant sense? A. B. C. D. Hearing, because we receive auditory input which goes directly to the brain. Smell, because we can determine if something is safe to eat or not. Vision, because more than 70% of our sensory receptors are found in the eye. Taste, because that is how we can determine if we should eat something or not. Which structure of the eye focuses light on the retina? A. B. C. D. the iris the lens the sclera the pupil The hearing receptor cells within the ear are called: A. B. C. D. hair cells rod cells cone cells olfactory cells Which of the following is NOT a primary taste sensation? A. B. C. D. sweet sour chilli umami Urinary System Urine is produced by the kidneys by filtering which substance? A. B. C. D. Blood Water Electrolytes Lymphatic fluid Which of the following is NOT an organ of the urinary system? A. B. C. D. The kidneys The urinary bladder The liver The urethra Which of the follow are the correct steps for urine formation? A. B. C. D. Filtration, absorption and secretion Filtration, regulation and excretion Absorption, excretion and micturition Secretion, filtration and excretion Urine is made up primarily of: A. B. C. D. blood protein ketones water Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the kidneys? A. B. C. D. secreting hormones that help digestion regulating blood volume by controlling water balance producing urine disposing of metabolic waste products Most nephrons are located in which part of the kidney? A. B. C. D. the renal pelvis the renal cortex the renal pyramids the renal calyces The non-selective process performed by the glomerulus is known as: A. B. C. D. tubular reabsorption filtration secretion urination Lymphatic & Immune System What is the role of the lymph nodes? A. B. C. D. to filter blood and remove bacteria, debris and cancerous cells to filter leaked plasma and return it to the blood to trap pathogens as they enter the throat to produce lymphocytes When someone gets chicken pox and their body’s immune system fights it off, this is an example of: A. B. C. D. Active, artificially acquired immunity Active, naturally acquired immunity Passive, artificially acquired immunity Passive, naturally acquired immunity What is lymphatic fluid similar in composition to? A. B. C. D. Blood plasma Urine Blood Electrolytes In what way are lymph capillaries similar to blood capillaries? A. B. C. D. They are both open and blind ended vessels They both have a pump They both return blood to the heart They are both thin walled and have valves to prevent backflow Which of the following is NOT part of the lymphatic system? A. B. C. D. Peyer’s patches Thyroid gland Thymus gland Tonsils A child that receives antibodies from its mother via breastmilk gains which form of immunity? A. B. C. D. naturally acquired active immunity artificially acquired active immunity naturally acquired passive immunity artificially acquired passive immunity Lymphatic fluid is basically water that has escaped from: A. B. C. D. blood tears cerebrospinal fluid saliva Which structure carries lymphatic fluid to the lymph node? A. B. C. D. a blood vessel a lymph vessel the heart the spleen The thymus is most active during: A. B. C. D. infancy adolescence adulthood old age Reproductive System The process by which eggs are produced is: A. B. C. D. Ovulation Oogenesis Fertilization Meiosis Where does a fertilised ovum implant at the beginning of a pregnancy? A. B. C. D. the ovaries the fallopian tubes the uterus the vagina Where does the production of sperm occur? A. B. C. D. Vas deferens Testes Urethra Prostate gland At what time of gestation is an embryo considered to become a fetus? A. B. C. D. at implantation at 9 weeks gestation at 12 weeks gestation at 20 weeks gestation A female has all the ‘eggs’ she will ever produce at ____________? A. B. C. D. birth age 10 the onset of puberty the age of 30 The process of ovulation in a female occurs every _____ days A. B. C. D. 10 14 28 45 Part 2 – Short Answers – 10 Questions. Please attempt all questions. Respiratory System Question 1. What is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs known as? Pulmonary ventilation or breathing Question 2. Incoming air is warmed, moistened and filtered on its way to the lungs. How does this occur? It swirls around bones within the nasal cavity, where it becomes moist and warm and at the same time passes over mucous membranes that are sticky with mucus, and this traps bacteria. Question 3. What is the bony division between the nasal cavity and the mouth known as? The hard palate Question 4. Explain how oxygen is transported in the blood It binds to hemoglobin to form an easily-reversible compound known as oxyhemoglobin Question 5. Gas exchange between the blood and the cells of the body is known as? Internal respiration or cellular respiration Special Senses Question 6. What is the name of the structure that divides the outer ear from the middle ear? The tympanic membrane or the ear drum Question 7. What structure focuses light on the retina? The lens (a big hint is the word, focuses, which is what the lens in a camera does) Question 8. What type of receptor is responsible for our sense of smell? The olfactory receptors Lymphatic & Immune System Question 9. Consider what lymphatic fluid is. How is it formed and how is it moved throughout the body? Lymph is essentially plasma that has leaked from the blood capillaries. It moves into the lymph vessels and is pushed towards the heart by skeletal muscle movement and pressure changes in the thorax during breathing. Question 10. What is the difference between naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity? Give an example of each: Naturally acquired immunity occurs as a result of the body fighting off a ‘bug’ whereas artificially acquired immunity occurs as a result of being ‘given’ a vaccination to help the body ‘build’ immunity. Question 11. In your own words, explain how the components of the first line of defense (skin, mucous membranes and their secretions) protect the body against foreign invaders. The skin produces sebum, which is slightly acidic and this stops bacteria from growing on it. The skin is a waterproof barrier to pathogens, stopping them from entering the body. The mucous membranes produce mucus that trap bacteria and stop them from entering the lungs. Urinary System Question 12. Structurally and functionally, how does the male urethra differ to a female urethra? A male urethra is a passageway for both semen and urine and is approximately 20cm long. A female urethra is a passageway for urine only and is 3-4cm long. Question 13. What are the three processes that need to take place in order for urine to be formed? Glomerular filtration, where the blood is filtered, tubular reabsorption, where substances the body can still use are reabsorbed back into the blood, and tubular secretion where waste products are secreted from the blood into the filtrate which eventually becomes urine. Question 14. What are the two main structures of a nephron and what does a nephron do? A nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is comprised of the glomerulus and the renal tubule. Question 15. What name is given to the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder? The ureters. Reproductive System Question 16. The middle muscular layer of the uterus is known as the ___________? myometrium. Question 17. What is the name of the narrow outlet of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina? The cervix. Question 18. What is the name of the inner layer of the uterus that is shed during menstruation? The endometrium Question 19. Which organs form the gonads (sex organs) in the male and female reproductive systems? The testes in males and the ovaries in females. Question 20. What are the secondary sex characteristics in a male and what causes them? Growth of facial and pubic hair, deepening of the voice, increase in bone growth and density, enlargement of skeletal muscles. These are all caused by testosterone.