Which of the following best explains life in communities prior to the Agricultural Revolutions? A. Agriculturalists & pastoralists competed and often fought over land B. The only role for women was to bear & raise children C. Groups were defined by the geographic region of origin D. The foraging lifestyle supported only small, nomadic groups of people E. Specialization of labor resulted in important technological advances Which one of the following reasons do most historians cite as the cause of the Agricultural Revolution? A. People migrated to regions that could finally support agriculture. B. A cooling period around 6000 BCE allowed to settle in 1 place year around. C. Climate change drove people to abandon foraging in favor of agriculture D. Foraging groups grew so large that they could no longer function as nomadic societies. E. Major river valleys stopped flooding, which allowed people to settle along their banks. The Origins of Agriculture Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agriculture Societies Essential Question: How did life differ before and after the Neolithic Revolution? Before Civilization • Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age – ~2.5 mill. yrs ago to ~8000 B.C.E. – Humans migrated from East Africa to Eurasia, Australia & the Americas • Adapted to different geographical settings • Developed varied technologies Food Gathering Peoples • Humans lived in huntingforaging bands based on kinship – Some self-sufficient, others exchanged goods needed for survival • Ability to produce fire: – Aided hunting/gathering – Protected against predators – Provided warmth in cold environments – Improved taste of food & made it easier to digest Food Gathering Peoples • Gender relations tended to be more egalitarian in Paleolithic societies – Women gathered/cooked (while carrying their children) – Men hunted large animals Food Gathering Peoples • Foundations of science, art & religion developed during Paleolithic Age – No writing systems – Cave paintings – Ceremonial burials implied a belief in the afterlife – Religious beliefs revolved around nature Megaliths The Neolithic Revolution • ~10,000 yrs ago (8000 B.C.E.) some societies adopted agriculture & animal domestication – In response to environmental changes – Not a single event, but a series of separate transformations (Agricultural Revolutions) – Created more reliable (but often less diversified) food supply Neolithic Revolution Slash and Burn Agriculture The Neolithic Revolution • Agriculture developed first in Mesopotamia – Followed at different times in: • • • • • The Nile River Valley & Sub-Saharan Africa The Yellow River (Huang He) Valley Papua New Guinea Mesoamerica The Andes River Valley Civilizations CPSSBRTA Pastoralism • Pastoralism – Way of life dependent on herding animals – Nomadic – Developed in grasslands of Afro-Eurasia Life in Neolithic Communities • Agriculture required communities to work together to clear land & create irrigation (water control) systems – Drastically altered environment (ex. soil exhaustion, deforestation) • Food surpluses led to specialization of labor, new societal classes (merchants, artisans, etc.), development of elites & rapid population increases Life in Neolithic Communities • Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation – Ex. pottery, plows, woven textiles, metallurgy, wheels and wheeled vehicles Life in Neolithic Communities • Gender roles – Women lost social status – Societies became patriarchal (dominated by males) • Civilizations arose – But what characteristics define the difference between a group of people and a civilization?