Chapter 2


WEEK 2, WELCOME BACK !!!! HSP 3M Intro to Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology

 Attendance/Bell Work  Review Class Website assignment  Today’s Lesson!

 Why is anthropology important?

 Evolution, complicated topic, I know let’s try and take it easy on each other. Let’s remember we are all part of community of learners with many unique and important differences.





What does it mean to be human?

How are human beings unique? What characteristics do humans share with other species?

• • In the past, anthropologist divided the human race into distinct racial groups.

Physical anthropologiest have learned that physical differences develop in response to various geographical climatic and cultural conditions, and not due biological causes.

• • The success of one group is due to social factors, such as education and employment opportunities. The physical differences can be attributed to geographical climatic and cultural differences. Diversity should not be viewed as a hindrance, it allows our species to continue surviving in a changing world.



What human characteristics separate human beings from other species?

How have these characteristics helped humans to develop and progress?

 The ability to communicate through language  The ability to walk upright for long distances, while performing other tasks.

 Any others...

 Prepare a short paragraph 5-6 sentences about Mary Leakey  Please use website resources or any other referenced material.

 Your Bell Work today will be to show me what you learned about Mary Leakey?

(please put your homework on your desk, I will be moving around to check it.)

 Please make a list of all the things you have done since this morning maximum of 20 things.

 After you have done that please put an


(standing for acquired) and an “I” (standing for Innate) beside those that you were born with.

 Hair Color  Accent  Height  Puberty  Weight  Skin color  Gender

 The nature vs. nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities (“nature”, ie. Nativism or innatism) versus personal experiences (“nurture”, i.e. empiricism or behaviorism) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits.

 The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from "nurture" is known as Tabula Rasa("blank slate") “John Locke”. This question was once considered to be an appropriate division of developmental influences, but since both types of factors are known to play such interacting roles in development, many modern psychologists consider the question naive - representing an outdated state of knowledge

 The concept of evolution basically states that: Surviving species will pass on its unique characteristics to its offspring and those successful variations will produce a new species, on that can thrive in anew environment.

 On your own please describe characteristics of a culture.

 Culture refers to the pattern of human activity and the symbols that give significance to these activities. Culture manifests itself in terms of the art,

literature, costumes, customs, language,

religion and religious rituals. The people and their pattern of life make up the culture of a region

 Culture can influence our biological needs and inherited tendencies. Examples of culture defining nature are choice of food or travel  Culture is shared  Culture is learned  Culture has patterns  Culture shapes how we perceive and understand the world.

 Diversity  Multiculturalism,  Bilingualism,  Civility  Inclusion  Equality.

Ethnography: The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures Participant observation: Is organized so as to produce a kind of writing called and ethnography. is a type of research strategy. It is a widely used methodology in Cultural Anthropology. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub-cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time.

Group 1: Foraging Cultures Group 2: Horticultural cultures Group 3: agricultural cultures Group 4: Pastoral Cultures Group 5: Industrial Cultures Group 6 Communication-Based Cultures Major characteristics