Lab 8 resp physS13

advertisement
Lab 8
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Respiratory System Physiology
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Identifying Respiratory System Organs
Text Figure 23-1
Demonstrating a Sheep Pluck (using inflatable pig's lungs instead)
Examining Prepared Slides of Trachea and Lung Tissue
Text Figures 23-6 and 23-10
Respiratory System Physiology
Operating the Model Lung
1. Identify the parts of the model that represent the thorax, diaphragm,
conducting zone and lungs.
2. Pull down on the diaphragm carefully. Observe what happens to the
balloons.
3. Push up on the diaphragm. Observe what happens to the balloons.
Lung Volumes and Capacities – Vernier System Handout
Respiratory Responses to Physiologic Challenges
Vernier Software & Technology
13979 S.W. Millikan Way • Beaverton, OR 97005-2886
Toll Free (888) 837-6437 • (503) 277-2299 • FAX (503) 277-2440
[email protected] • www.vernier.com
Comparable values for a healthy young adult female are: TV = 500ml, IRV=1900
ml, ERV= 700ml, RV= 1100ml.
INTRODUCTION: Lung Volumes and Capacities
Tidal Volume (TV): The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional volume of air that can be inhaled
with maximum effort after a normal inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The additional volume of air that can be forcibly
exhaled after normal exhalation
Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximum
inhalation: VC = TV + IRV + ERV
Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation
(the lungs can never be completely emptied)
Total Lung Capacity (TLC): = VC + RV
Minute Ventilation: The volume of air breathed in 1 minute: (TV)(breaths/minute)
In this experiment, you will measure lung volumes during normal breathing and with
maximum effort. You will correlate lung volumes with a variety of clinical scenarios.
OBJECTIVES
In this experiment, you will
• Obtain graphical representation of lung capacities and volumes.
• Compare lung volumes between males and females.
MATERIALS
Computer – record the asset number of your computer before you begin.
Vernier computer interface Logger Pro
Vernier Spirometer
Disposable mouthpiece – one per lab group. Initial this with a marker. Do not share the
filter with others.
Disposable bacterial filter – one per lab group
Nose clip
PROCEDURE
Important: Do not attempt this experiment if you are currently suffering from a
respiratory ailment such as the cold or flu.
1. Connect the Spirometer to the Vernier computer interface. Open the file “19 Lung
Volumes” from the Human Physiology with Vernier folder.
2. Be sure the program is set to collect data for 60 seconds. If not, go to Experiment
and Data Collection and change it to 60 seconds.
3. Wait until the green [collect] button turns red [stop] before beginning data
collection. This may take a few seconds.
4. Attach the larger diameter side of a bacterial filter to the “Inlet” side of the
Spirometer. Attach a gray disposable mouthpiece to the other end of the bacterial
filter (see Figure 2).
5. Hold the Spirometer in one or both hands. Brace your arm(s) against a solid
surface, such as a table, and click
to zero the sensor. Note: The
Spirometer must be held straight up and down, as in Figure 2, and not moved
during data collection.
6. Collect inhalation and exhalation data.
1. Put on the nose plug.
2. Click Collect to begin data collection.
3. Taking normal breaths, begin data collection with an inhalation and
continue to breathe in and out. After 4 cycles of normal inspirations and
expirations fill your lungs as deeply as possible (maximum inspiration)
and exhale as fully as possible (maximum expiration). It is essential that
maximum effort be expended when performing tests of lung volumes.
4. Follow this with at least one additional recovery breath.
7. Click Stop to end data collection.
8. Click the Next Page button to see the lung volume data. If the baseline on your
graph has drifted, use the Baseline Adjustment feature to bring the baseline volumes
closer to zero, as in Figure 3.
9. Select a representative peak and valley in the Tidal Volume portion of your graph.
Place the cursor on the peak and click and drag down to the valley that follows it.
Enter the Δy value displayed in the lower left corner of the graph to the nearest
0.1 L as Tidal Volume in Table 1.
10. Move the cursor to the peak that represents your maximum inspiration. Click and
drag down the side of the peak until you reach the level of the peaks graphed
during normal breathing. Enter the Δy value displayed in the lower left corner of
the graph to the nearest 0.1 L as Inspiratory Reserve Volume in Table 1.
11. Move the cursor to the valley that represents your maximum expiration. Click and
drag up the side of the peak until you reach the level of the valleys graphed during
normal breathing. Enter the Δy value displayed in the lower left corner of the
graph to the nearest 0.1 L as Expiratory Reserve Volume in Table 1.
12. Calculate the Vital Capacity and enter the total to the nearest 0.1 L in Table 1. VC
= TV + IRV + ERV
13. Calculate the Total Lung Capacity and enter the total to the nearest 0.1 L in Table
1. (Use the value of 1.5 L for the RV.) TLC = VC + RV
14. Share your data with your classmates and complete the Class Average columns in
Table 1. Fill out the table on the board to make the data available.
DATA
Table 1
Class average
Individual
Class average (Female)
Volume measurement (L)
(Male)
(L)
(L)
(L)
Tidal Volume (TV)
Inspiratory Reserve (IRV)
Expiratory Reserve (ERV)
Vital Capacity (VC)
Residual Volume (RV)
�1.5
�1.5
�1.5
Total Lung Capacity
(TLC)
Name_________________________________________
Turn in at the next class.
Spirometry - DATA ANALYSIS
1. What was your Tidal Volume (TV)?
2. What would you expect your TV to be if you inhaled a foreign object which
completely obstructed your right mainstem bronchus? How did you decide?
3. Describe the difference between average lung volumes for males and females.
4. What might account for this?
5. Calculate your Minute Volume at rest.
(TV × breaths/minute) = Minute Volume at rest
If you are taking shallow breaths (TV = 0.20 L) to avoid severe pain from rib
fractures, what respiratory rate will be required to achieve the same minute
volume?
6. Using the figure for respiratory volumes and capacities from the graph in this
handout, how do your values for the following compare to the normal range?
TV
higher
lower
about the same
ERV
higher
lower
about the same
IRV
higher
lower
about the same
VC
higher
lower
about the same
What is your predicted VC from the attached charts? ________ ml.
Find your height on the left and your age at the top. Read across and down to find
an estimate of your vital capacity in liters.
What is your measured VC? ____________
What is your% predicted VC value?
____________ %
(% predicted vital capacity = actual VC/predicted VC x 100)
Model Lung
1.Fill in the following table by checking the correct observation.
Change
in internal
volume of the
bell jar
in internal
pressure
in the size of
the balloons
Diaphragm pushed up
Increased
Decreased
Diaphragm pulled down
Increased
Decreased
Into lungs
Into lungs
Out of lungs
Out of lungs
in direction of
air flow
Preserved Lungs
List three ways the smoker pig's lungs were different from the non-smoker pig's lungs.
Non-smoker Pig
Smoker Pig
Vital Capacity Chart – Female
20 25
30 35
40 45 50 55
60
65 70 75
80
For the Lab Exam
Identify parts of the model lung
Interpret data from Spirometry experiments
Interpret vital capacity charts
Distinguish between smoker pig and non-smoker pig lungs
Human Anatomy: Identify on Torso:
 cricoid cartilage
 epiglottis
 esophagus
 hard palate
 inferior nasal concha
 internal nares
 laryngopharynx
 lingual tonsil
 middle nasal concha
 nasopharynx
Identify using figures in lab manual and text
 Cricoid cartilage
 Epiglottis
 Esophagus
 Hard palate
 Inferior concha
 Internal nares
 Laryngopharynx
 Larynx
 Lingual tonsil
 Middle concha
 Nasopharynx
 Opening of auditory tube
Identify using figures in lab manual and text
 Cricoid cartilage
 Epiglottis
 Hyoid bone
Identify using figures in lab manual and text
 Alveolar duct
 Alveolar sac
 Alveolus
 Lobar or secondary bronchus
 Lobes of lungs
Identify using figures in lab manual and text
 Alveolar epithelium
 Alveolus
 Capillary
 Capillary endothelium
 Fused basal laminae
Slides:
Trachea - cartilage, lumen, mucosa, epithelial type
Lung - alveolus, epithelial type










opening of auditory tube
oropharynx
palatine tonsil
pharyngeal tonsil
soft palate
superior nasal concha
thyroid cartilage
uvula
ventricular folds or false vocal cords
vocal folds or true vocal cords











Oropharynx
Palatine tonsil
Pharyngeal tonsil
Soft palate
Superior concha
Thyroid cartilage
Thyroid gland
Tongue
Trachea
Vestibule
Vocal fold



Thyroid cartilage
Tracheal cartilages
Vocal fold





Main or primary bronchus
Respiratory bronchiole
Segmental or tertiary bronchus
Terminal bronchiole
Trachea




Macrophage
Red blood cell
Respiratory membrane
Surfactant secreting cell (Type II cell)
Download