Chapter 6, Section 4 Indian Removal p. 229-233 Despite a Supreme Court ruling in their favor, Native Americans of the Southeast are forced to move. 6.4 Section Focus Question Why did President Jackson use force to remove Indians from the Southeast? Native Americans of the Southeast Many Cherokee adapted white ways. • 100,000 Native Americans live east of the Mississippi River when Jackson becomes president in 1829 - Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek, & Seminole. • The Cherokee adopt many white customs: – – – – – Sequoyah - developed Cherokee alphabet (see p. 234-235) Farming Trade Schools Some converted to Christianity Had a written constitution • Sequoyah creates a written alphabet for the Cherokee language Question for Discussion: Why did government leaders want to remove Native Americans from the Southeast? CONFLICT OVER LAND They stood in the way of westward expansion. White farmers wanted their fertile land for growing cotton. They weren’t white. Conflict Over Land • U.S. government hopes Native American tribe’s move West will be voluntary (done willingly). - Georgia passes laws in 1825 & 1827 forcing Creek & Cherokee tribes to give up their lands. • Led by their Chief John Ross, the Cherokee sue the state of Georgia – In case Worcester v. Georgia (1832): Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia law had no force in Cherokee territory. • Andrew Jackson’s response: "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it." Cherokee Chief John Ross The Trail of Tears • 1838: U.S. Army forces 16,000 Cherokee from their lands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina & Georgia – Sent to the “Indian Territory” (modern day Oklahoma) – Over a ¼ of the Cherokee die on the trip. – Of 4,000 that die most are women, children, the sick, or the elderly. Heartbreak of the Cherokee John Ridge Chief John Ross Major Ridge Elias Boudinot Indian Removal Act (1830) • Not only the Cherokee were forced off their land... – – – – – – Chickasaw Choctaw Creek Seminole Fox Sauk Trail of Tears Shadow of the Owl By Cherokee artist John Guthrie Does Oklahoma honor Native Americans? Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, OK “Sacred Rain Arrow” (Photos taken 2010) 6.4 Section Focus Question Why did President Jackson use force to remove Indians from the Southeast? They didn’t leave voluntarily. They were in the way of our move west. Whites wanted their excellent farmland (and gold). Jackson used force because American citizens wanted them out.