# MAPS: How do we use them???

```Tools of GEO and MAPS: How do
we use them???
Research methods/TOOLS used to study Geography:
• Direct Observation – visiting a region, aerial photos &amp;
satellite
• Mapping / Cartography – study &amp; making maps
• Statistics - math
• Technology
– Graphic information systems (GIS)
• Definition: computer systems that store and analyze
– Global Positioning system (GPS)
• Definition: a system that uses satellites and receivers to
determine absolute location
T.O.D.A.L.S.I.G.S.’s.
•
•
•
•
T is for TITLE: What is this map of?
O is for Orientation: Compass Rose
A is for Author: Who created this map?
• L is for LEGEND: What do the things on this
map represent? (think key!)
S is for SCALE
• Map Scale is the ratio of the distance on the map
to the distance on the ground
Large Scale
Small Scale
***One inch on a map could equal 1,000 kilometers in real life! It shows us
distance!
SCALE
• I is for Index: What does the map include?
• Used usually in books of maps called ATLASES
G is for Grid System
• Combining Longitude and Latitude allow people to
identify exact locations of places on the earth (absolute
location)
• (DON’T COPY below)
Example:
Denver is found at
39 degrees North
Latitude and 104
degrees West
Longitude
GRID: Meridian (Longitude)
• Lines that run north and south or vertical: divide world
into Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere
• 0 degrees called Prime Meridian
– Goes through Greenwich, England
– 180 degrees is called the International date line: Cross the line from the
east to the west and a day is added. Cross from west to the east and a day
is subtracted
GRID: Parallels (Latitude)
• Imaginary lines that run west to east or horizontal
• 0 degrees latitude called equator
• Two other major parallels are the Tropic of Cancer
and the Tropic of Capricorn
-located 23 &frac12; degrees above and below the equator
• S is for source: What did you use to
make this map? (IF not obtained by
direct experience or observation)… GIVE
CREDIT!
• ’s is for: surrounding areas (places or
features that border the map)
MAP ACTIVITY
• Create a map of your home or school using
the TODALSIGS’s
• You don’t have to include I or G
• For the key, color code rooms or buildings
and include symbols for things like trees if
necessary
• It should look like a blueprint (like you’ve
chopped off the roof of your house and
you’re looking down at it)
“Know Your World”: MAP Activity #2
• Label the areas on the maps with the letters given.
• Bodies of Water (label and color blue): Oceans (4),
Mediterranean/Black/Aral/Norwegian/North/Caspian/Red
Seas and Sea of Japan (8), Gulf of Mexico, Mississippi River,
Nile River, Volga River, Rio Grande, Danube River, Persian Gulf,
English Channel
• Land (label): Continents(7), Rocky Mts., Himalaya Mts., Sahara
Desert, Alps (Mts.), Carpathian Mts., Ural Mts.
• Find (write on back): examples of a Peninsula, Archipelago,
plateau
• Find Latitude and Longitudes for (label, write on back): New
York City; Tokyo, Japan; Moscow, Russia; Cape town, South
Africa; Mexico City, Mexico; London, England; Paris, France;
Buenos Aires, Argentina; Munich, Germany; Constantinople,
Turkey; Rome, Italy; Sydney, Australia….. Include a city of your
choice as well!
• IF THINGS DON’T FIT…. Create a KEY! (TODALSIG’s!)
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