Middle Ages Study Guide- Chapter 13 Answers The Middle Ages is

Middle Ages Study Guide- Chapter 13 Answers
1. The Middle Ages is the name given to a period of history between the fall of Rome and the
beginning of the Renaissance. The timespan in years is about 500-1500.
2. Impacts of Germanic invasions included the following items: disruption of trade, shrinking of
cities, movement of people to rural (country) areas, decline of learning, loss of common
language, and government changed.
3. Clovis brought Christianity to the Franks. The story is that he prayed to his wife’s Christian God
while losing during battle, ended up winning, gave the credit to Christ, and he and his soldiers
were baptized after winning.
4. Monasteries are religious communities for men. They give up their possessions and spend time
studying and praying.
5. Secular is defined as dealing with non-spiritual issues.
6. The major domo, translated as mayor of the palace, ultimately became the most powerful
person in the Frankish kingdom. The major domo was the head of the royal house and estates,
but he also led armies and made political decisions.
7. Charles the Hammer is the nickname for Charles Martel. Martel defeated Muslim invaders from
Spain. Most historians credit him for stopping the Muslim advance into Europe at this battle,
The Battle of Tours. Many historians say that if Charles the Hammer had lost, Europe, and
consequently its eventual colonies, would be Muslim.
8. Charles the Great is better known as Charlemagne. He was able to build a large empire, larger
than any since the fall of Rome. He also encouraged learning and was a very active leader. His
empire was weaker after his heir and then grandsons fought over and divided the land.
9. The Vikings, or Northmen, were from Scandinavia (northern Europe) and were known for their
violent and fast raids.
10. The King held the most power and resources and was at the top of the pyramid. The next social
strata, the next layer in wealth and power, was held by church officials and nobles. Knights
were beneath the nobles and church, and at the very bottom with the least wealth and power,
were the peasants. See pages 360-361 of text, or your assignment.
11. A manor was the entire lord’s estate. It consisted of a manor house, serfs’ and lord’s fields, a
church, and other items needed to live self-sufficiently. Many families lived on the manor
usually, and it was a few miles in size typically. See page 362 of your text for an example.
12. Chivalry was the code that guided Knights. They were to be loyal, brave, and courteous though
most were not in real life. Knights were to serve a lady, their feudal lord, and Christ.
13. A boy became a Knight through a process that started around the age of 7. He was usually sent
to another household where he was a page, learning to both serve and fight. As a teen, usually
around 14, he became a squire which was a servant to a knight. Then, usually in his early 20s,
he was ready to become a knight.
14. They were to be loyal, brave, and courteous though most were not in real life.
15. Tournaments were competitions that imitated battle and were frequently bloody and
16. Weapons of the time included the battering ram, tortoise, mangonel, mantlet, trebuchet, and
siege tower. See page 366.
17. Troubadours were traveling poet-musicians.
18. Women’s lives were very limited and powerless. Peasant women worked in the fields and
house. A noblewoman had little more power than a peasant woman in general.
19. Clergy is the term meaning church officials.
20. Sacraments are religious ceremonies like baptism. They are the ceremonies people complete to
achieve salvation.
21. The term meaning church law is canon law.
22. Lay investiture was the practice of choosing a friend or political ally as a church official. It was a
way of sharing power and making sure your allies were powerful church leaders. The men
chosen did not have to be leaders within the Church or have special training since they were
being chosen by kings and nobles. Clergy did NOT like this policy.
23. Emperor Henry IV (EHIV) and Pope Gregory VII (PGVII) battled for control and power. PGVII
banned lay investiture. EHIV then tried to force PGVII to step down as Pope. PGVII then
excommunicated EHIV which resulted in EHIV begging forgiveness from PGVII in the “showdown
at Canossa”. Nothing was really resolved about the power struggle between the Church and
24. The Concordant of Worms (Worms is a city in Germany) settled the issue of lay investiture. The
Church had the power to appoint bishops, but the emperor could veto the appointment.
25. German states were unable to unify because of many reasons, only one of which were struggles
with the Church. German princes elected the king, and thus the king was limited in power. Also,
German rulers had less land than French or English kings, so they had fewer resources.
END of CHAPTER 13 Questions & Answers