The Middle Ages Ancient world (Greece and Rome) B.C – 500 A.D. Middle Ages Modern World (Medieval time period) (Dark Ages) 500 - 1500 (Today) Ends with fall of Rome 1500 – today Begins with discovery of New World The CHURCH The __________________ _____________________ had ruled over a large part of the known world. When their empire fell apart there was no longer a single ruler. Europe broke into many small _____________________ with their own governments ruled by __________________. The _____________________ Church became very important. The church gained influence and power and became very controlling. They even had ______________________ power. The head of the Christian Church was the ___________. He ordered the start of religious wars against the __________________. These wars were called ________________________. The Crusades were meant to take over the Holy Land (where ______________ was born) from the Muslims. This is Israel today. There were eight Crusades and they were all _____________________________________. These Crusades exposed the Europeans to new ideas and products from _____________. FEUDALISM In the small kingdoms of Europe most of the land was owned by _______________. The kings gave some land called a ____________ to ______________ who were born wealthy and powerful. The nobles gave land to __________________ (___________________ warriors) in exchange for protection. This exchange of land for military service was called ____________________ or the feudal system. Some knights owed service to more than one noble. Sometimes those nobles would go to war causing ______________________________. The knights were needed for protection against the invading _____________________ from the north and other invaders. Training to be a knight started as a _____________, a boy born of noble birth who practiced to be a knight at age 7. At age 14, a page became a _________________ who served a knight. He helped a knight with his ___________________ and learned the skills by watching his master. At age 21 a squire became a ___________________ if he mastered the skills necessary. To practice their skills, knights participated in contests called _________________. Two knights rode at each other with a _________________ trying to unhorse each other. Knights also practiced ___________________. This was a code of ______________________ where knights were to be brave, loyal, truthful, generous, courteous, gracious, kind to the poor, kind to the weak and to all _______________, and protector of the _____________. The MANOR SYSTEM The manor system controlled most ____________________________ activity in Europe. A manor was a large estate (______________) owned by a noble or knight. A noble might own many manors and travel between them. A manor included a large house or _________________, fields for crops, a village for homes, often a church, _____________________ for the animals, shops and mills. The owner of the manor (___________) gave workers a place to live, a small piece of land to grow their own crops, but most of the food went to the ________________ of the manor. The workers were either ____________________ (free farmers), or _______________ who were not free. The _________________ were tied to the land. Castles were built for protection. Often they had a _______________ (water) surrounding the castle with a _____________________________ over it. As trade increased, larger cities started to develop, and the manor system became ____________ important. JUSTICE IN MEDIEVAL SOCIETY There were several ways to prove your innocence: Trial by _________________ – You fought your accuser. If you won you were _______________________, if you were killed you were ______________________. Trial by ____________________ – Put your hand in fire or into boiling water. If your wounds healed without infection you were ___________________. You might be tied up and thrown into a lake. If you floated right away you were _______________. If you sank you were _______________________. CHANGES IN MEDIEVAL SOCIETY The king of England became very powerful. King _____________ believed the king had the right to do whatever he wanted. This angered the _________________ of England. In 1215, the nobles forced King John to sign the ______________ _______________. This document made the written __________ the supreme power, NOT the king. The king now had to _______________ the law. The Magna Carta was the first step to _________________________. The USA modeled its ___________________________ after the Magna Carta. The nobles became the Parliament (________________) of England today. The BLACK DEATH In 1347 a disease called the Black Death swept through Europe. It was a series of _____________________ called the bubonic plague. The disease was caused by _______________ and _____________. The _______________ got it from the __________________ and then passed it on to humans. It spread quickly. It was called the Black Death because it caused black ________________ on the ________. Up to _______ of the people of Europe died from this disease. ______ __________________ people died. THE END OF FEUDALISM 1337 -1453: The _________ Years War fought between France and ____________________. ___________ _____ __________________ was a 16 year old girl who led French troops into battle. She was captured and _____________________ but inspired the French on to victory over England. This began the ending of the Middle Ages because nation-states (_________________) began to develop. These were ruled by a single government and eliminated the need for ____________________________. New weapons also developed like ___________________ which knocked down castle walls. ___________________ could pierce knight’s armor, and _______________________ could shoot more quickly. This made castles and knights ________ important.