Ch. 1 Rdg Guide

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Before History Chapter 1

1. Map: Draw/label the human migrations out of Africa. You may have to look it up online since it’s not very clear in the PDF. 2. Draw a timeline that includes the following key events: Era of Neanderthal Peoples, Early experimentation with agriculture, Appearance of agricultural villages, Appearance of cities

Part 1 Ch. 1 pg. 4-15

3. Provide a summary of the section titled “Eyewitness: Lucy and the Archaeologists” 4. What similarities do humans have with large apes? 5. How have humans demonstrated that they are the most distinctive of the primate species? 6. List at least 4 characteristics of the Australopithecus species like Lucy. 7. They Homo erectus species were more advanced than the Australopithecus species. Provide two examples of that being the case. 8. What made Homo sapiens more advanced than Homo erectus species? 9. What key trait allowed for Homo Sapiens to develop sophisticated language? 10. Why were Homo sapiens able to migrate further than other species? (Make sure to include at least two reasons)

11. Describe an effect that humans (Homo sapiens) had on the natural world? 12. What was the Paleolithic era? When did it take place (start and end)? 13. Why did hunter-gatherer societies have social equality? 14. Why were men and women equal during Paleolithic society? 15. How large were hunter-gatherer groups and why were they so small? 16. Describe the Natufian society.

Location: Food source: Estimated size: Job specialization:

17. What did Neandertal peoples do that was unique to their people? 18. Homo sapiens were very creative; provide 3 examples of that being the case. Make sure your 3 examples are ones that you think were most important and rank them 1-3. 19. Although Paleolithic people did not have a writing system what did they leave behind that gives us insight to what was important in their societies? Part 2

Chapter 1 pg. 15-23

20. What does the term Neolithic era refer to? 21. What two features make up an agricultural society? 22. Explain the earliest technique used by farmers. 23. How was farming more difficult than hunting and gathering?

24. Why did human population increase so dramatically during the Neolithic era? 25. Explain the following characteristics of Jericho, one of the earliest Neolithic villages.

Location: Water source: Estimated size: Defense:

26. Define job specialization (specialization of labor) (Hint: Infer the definition from the text). Also provide 3 examples of job specialization in Neolithic times. 27.Why was pottery a necessity for food producing societies? 28. What was the first metal Neolithic people used for making tools? When did this occur? 29. Explain how social classes developed as a result of agriculture? 30. Why did Neolithic societies rely on knowledge of the earth and its rhythms? 31. How were Paleolithic values and Neolithic values similar? 32. How did Neolithic cities differ from Neolithic villages?

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