ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY Urie Bronfenbrenner • Ecological systems model of socialization • Used in many texts: ie. • Mass media and socialization Livolsi, Marino. The four systems 1: • Microsystem: Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighborhood, and childcare environments) • Mesosystem: A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school) The four systems 2: • Exosystem: External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace) • Macrosystem: The larger cultural context (Eastern vs. Western culture, national economy, political culture, subculture) MICROSYSTEM• SIGNIFICANT OTHERS • FAMILY DYSFUNCTIONAL or FUNCTIONAL • -EMOTIONAL, • CARING, • LANGUAGE RICH. EXOSYSTEM • OUTSIDE THE INDIVIDUAL • CHILD NOT ACTIVE PARTICIPANT EXOSYSTEM FACTORS: • NEIGHBOURHOOD • POVERTY • PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT MESOSYSTEM • • • • INTERMEDIATE SOCIALIZER TEACHERS, PRINCIPALS FAMILY AND SCHOOL FAMILY AND PEER GROUP Chronosystem -temporal changes Chronosystem • Ecological systems or individuals producing new conditions that affect development. Self-Identity: • While in earlier, traditional societies we would be provided with that narrative and social role. (clear cut) • In the post-traditional society we are usually forced to create one ourselves. (ambiguous) Late modernity and Self • As Giddens (Modernity and Self-Identity: 70) puts it: "What to do? How to act? Who to be? • These are focal questions for everyone living in circumstances of late modernity – Questions we must ask: either discursively or through day-to-day social behaviour." SELF CONCEPT • Self-concept or self identity is the mental and conceptual understanding and persistent regard that sentient beings hold for their own existence. • In other words, it is the sum total of a being's knowledge and understanding of his or her self Self-concept • . The self-concept is different from selfconsciousness, which is an awareness or preoccupation with one's self. • Components of the self-concept include physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individual's attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas. • • These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self-image and the self-esteem. Self-concept is learned. • • • • (1) It is learned, (2) it is organized, (3) it is dynamic. Each of these qualities, with corollaries, follow.