Bronfenbrenner`s Ecological System Theory

Ecological Systems Theory
This theory was founded by Urie Brofenbrenner.
The theory was published in 1979.
Brofenbrenner believed every person is
influenced by the different environmental
The theory helps us understand why we act the
way we do in different circumstances or
The theory has 5 environmental systems.
1. Microsystem
2. Mesosystem
3. Exosystem
4. Macrosystem
5. Chronosystem
In the Microsystem the child is influenced by
people that he/she has direct contact with like
family, peers, teachers, etc.
In Mesosytem the child is influenced by the
experiences he/she has with the people in the
Microsystem. Example: A child may be withdrawn
from his/her peers at school because they are not
loved at home.
In the Exosystem the child is influenced by actions
or people that don’t have an active role in his/her
In the Macrosystem the child is influenced by
his/her own cultural values and traditions,
socioeconomic status, and the laws.
In the Chronosystem the child is influenced by
growing older or shifts in one’s lifespan like
divorce of parents or death of a close family
YouTube Video
o Children apply knowledge from Brofenbrenner’s
Ecological Systems Theory by recognizing their
environment is a critical part of their
o Children may realize the importance of taking
advantage of civic and community activities to
learn and gain experience.
Strengths and weaknesses
o This theory shows how multiple influences affect the
child’s development even when the child isn’t
directly involved in the situation.
o This theory does great at pinpointing the
development stages of life and the different
environments in which we are associated, but it does
not provide reasons for behavior.
Class Activity
The students in the classroom can each write a
memory down from their childhood. The
memory should be classified into one of the
layers from Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Systems
Problem in the class
A child is picked on at home by older sibling and
goes to school and is withdrawn from others or
goes to school and picks on smaller children.
Due to the child’s religious beliefs the child
cannot participate in holiday activities like
classroom Christmas parties, Halloween parties,
etc. (Macrosystem)