Absolutism and Constitutionalism

is the political belief that one ruler
should hold all the power in a country.
 Thomas Hobbes believed in a
people give up their rights to a strong ruler who gives
them law and order.
is the political
belief that people can govern themselves.
 John Locke believed that people were born with
(God given rights)
life, liberty and the right to property.
 He believed that government’s job was to protect
these rights.
 Signed by King Charles of England in
 Limited the King’s power in 4 ways:
He would not imprison subjects without due
2. He would not levy taxes without Parliament’s
3. He would not house soldiers in private
4. He would not impose martial law in
 King Charles signed the Petition of
Rights, but he
 The Petition started the idea that the
was higher than the king.
 William and Mary agreed to accept
Parliament as their partner in ruling.
 They signed the English Bill of Rights.
 They accepted
on their rights.
 This set up a
a government where laws limit the
ruler’s power.
 No
of Parliament’s laws.
 No levying of
without a specific
grant from Parliament.
 No interfering with freedom of
 No penalty for a citizen who petitions the
king about
The United States still uses some ideas developed in
England during this time.
– prevents persons from being
held in jail without being charged.
– guarantees basic freedoms and
 Strong Legislature and strong executive that check
and balance each other
– made up of heads of executive
 Two major political parties
_____1. What are “only the conditions of civil association” according to Rousseau?
_____2. What did Rousseau regard as unimportant for a republic? A. the citizens
A. Laws
b. Citizens
b. The form of administration
_____3. According to Montesquieu, the right to do whatever the laws permit is called what? A. Citizenship
_____4. Montesquieu believed that laws ensure what?
_____5. Rousseau believed that laws protect what?
A. Freedom
a. Freedom
_____6. What did both men believe in? A. Fair and just laws
b. Liberty
c. the types of laws
b. Liberty
c. Republic
c. Security
b. Liberty
c. Security
b. Abusive leaders
c. The right of anarchy and mob rule
_____7. Who did Rousseau feel should be the author of the laws? A. The people
b. The leaders
_____8. According to Montesquieu, if a person did what the laws do not permit what would he lose?
_____9. According to both men, what is needed? A. Justice
_____10. According to Montesquieu, what do laws ensure?
c. Freedom
a. Citizenship
A. Power
c. The king
b. Freedom
b. Society
c. Laws
b. Society
c. Security
c. Liberty
_____1. Who believed that Freedom of Thought and expression were important?
a. Locke
b. Montesquieu
c. Voltaire
_____2. Whose work caused European monarchs to reduce persecution
a. Voltaire
b. Beccaria
c. Wollstonecraft
_____3. Based on this chart, which woman had the biggest impact as a thinker?
a. Wollstonecraft
b. Beccaria
c. Voltaire
_____4. Whose ideas were fundamental to the US Declaration of Independence?
a. Locke
b. Montesquieue
c. Voltaire
_____5. What idea is led to the development of women’s rights groups in Europe and North America?
a. Religious Freedom
b. Wollstonecraft
c. Women’s equality
_____6. Which thinkers did not have an impact on the US?
a. None of them had an impact
b. They all had an impact
_____7. Whose idea led to the outlaw or reduce of torture in the Europe and America?
a. Beccaria
b. Wollstonecraft
c. Voltaire
_____8. Montesquieu’s ideas did not affect which country?
a. United States
b. France
c. China
1. Draw a line down the middle of your paper.
On the top of the Left side write the word
“ENGLAND” on the top of the Right side
write the word “AMERICA”.
2. Under ENGLAND write the word “English
Bill of Rights.” Under this section list the 6
things that this did for England.
3. Under AMERICA write the “Bill of Rights.”
Under this section list the 2 things our Bill
of Rights gives us.
4. Under ENGLAND write the word “Petition
of Rights.” Under this section list the 4
ways this limited the King’s power.
5. Under AMERICA write the word “Effects.”
Under this section list the 5 ways England
has effected America.
Draw pictures and decorate your poster – be
creative. Creativity is worth 10 points!
The Enlightenment Period brought a great
rise in the number of intellectuals in
Europe. More specifically, these
intellectuals came primarily from France
and were called philosophes. This rise in
philosophers in France was primarily
because French was the international
language for the educated classes during
the time, and education was found to be
extremely rich when taught by French
tutors. France was the international hub
for philosophy and enlightenment and
that is the reason why so many great
people came out of the country. Some of
these examples include the Montesquieu
(Separation of Powers), Voltaire (Strong
Monarch) and many others such as
Madame du Chatelet. All these
philosophers were very important in the
development of new theories and the vast
spread of the enlightenment, as their
theories are what helped create the new
beliefs that encouraged this new way of
_____1. What does the word philosophe mean?
a. An intellectual
b. An intellectual who came from France
c. A person from France
_____2. Why was French an important language?
a. It was the international language for the educated
b. It was spoken by everyone
c. It was taught to the poor citizens
_____3. Who believed in the idea of “separation of powers”?
a. Chatelet
b. Voltaire
c. Montesquieu
_____4. Why are the philosophes in the passage very important?
a. Their theories helped create new beliefs that encouraged a new way
of thinking
b. Their ideas were so different no one would listen to them
c. Only a few people could understand their ideas
_____5. Why did so many great people come from France?
a. Because it was the center of philosophy and enlightenment
b. Because it was a nice place to grow up
c. Because everyone was able to go to the best schools for free