Psy 202 EXAM 2 Study Guide 3/5 Chapter 5 The First Two Years

Psy 202 EXAM 2 Study Guide
Chapter 5 The First Two Years: Biosocial Development
Body Changes
Body Size
Where Should Babies Sleep?
Brain Development
Connections in the Brain
Basic Brain Structures
Transient Exuberance and Pruning
Experience Shapes the Brain
Stress and the Brain
Necessary and Possible Experiences
Implications for Caregivers
Sensation and Movement
The Five Senses
Smelling, Tasting, and Touching
Motor Skills
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Ethnic Variations
Surviving in Good Health
Breast Is Best
Chapter 6 The First Two Years: Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Intelligence
Object Permanence
Piaget and Modern Research
Boredom as a Research Method
Information Processing
Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?
The Universal Sequence
Listening and Responding
First Words
Gradual Beginnings
The Naming Explosion
Cultural Differences
Parts of Speech
Putting Words Together
Theories of Language Learning
Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught
Theory Two: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language
Theory Three: Infants Teach Themselves
A Hybrid Theory
Chapter 7 The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development
Emotional Development
Infants’ Emotions
Smiling and Laughing
Anger and Sadness
Toddlers’ Emotions
Brain Maturation and the Emotions
Social Impulses
The New York Longitudinal Study
Goodness of Fit
Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development
Erikson: Trust and Autonomy
Cognitive Theory
Proximal and Distal Parenting
The Development of Social Bonds
When Synchrony Disappears
Secure and Insecure Attachment
Measuring Attachment
Insecure Attachment and Social Setting
Social Referencing
Fathers as Social Partners
Comparing Fathers and Mothers
Infant Day Care
International Comparisons
Types of Nonmaternal Care
The Effects of Infant Day Care
Chapter 8 Early Childhood: Biosocial Development
Body Changes
Growth Patterns
Nutritional Deficiencies
Brain Development
Speed of Thought
Connecting the Brain’s Hemispheres
The Left-Handed Child
The Whole Brain
Planning and Analyzing
Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex
Improved Motor Skills
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Injuries and Abuse
Avoidable Injury
Injury Control
Injuries and Abuse
Child Maltreatment
Maltreatment Noticed and Defined
Frequency of Maltreatment
Warning Signs
Consequences of Maltreatment
A VIEW FROM SCIENCE: The Neglect of Neglect Three Levels of Prevention
Chapter 10 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development
Emotional Development
Initiative Versus Guilt
Seeking Emotional Balance
Externalizing and Internalizing Problems
Sex Differences in Emotional Regulation
The Brains of Boys and Girls
Cultural Differences in Play
Active Play
Rough-and-Tumble Play
Drama and Pretending
Challenges for Parents
Parenting Styles
Baumrind’s Three Styles of Parenting
Problems with Baumrind’s Parenting Styles
Cultural Variations
Children, Parents, and the New Media
Moral Development
Empathy and Antipathy
Parental Discipline
Physical Punishment
Psychological Control
Exclusion and Conversation
A VIEW FROM SCIENCE: Culture and Punishment