The Rise of Rome Notes Name _____Mrs. Alls______ Rome’s Beginnings The mountain range that runs through the northern region of Italy is the Alps Mountains. The mountains in Rome are less rugged than those in Greece. The site chosen for Rome was about 15 miles up the Tiber River from the Mediterranean Sea. There are two different legends or myths about how Rome began. o Twin brothers (Romulus and Remus) founded the city. o As babies, they were abandoned and raised by she-wolf. The Romans were influenced by the Greeks and the Etruscans. Greece and Etruria are geographically located near Rome. The Etruscans staged gladiator fights. What does this tell us about Etruscan society? It was a society with slaves. Rome began as a monarchy but changed to a republic, a form of government which the people choose their leader. The Roman Republic 509 494 Roman Plebeians B.C.E. Republic B.C.E. begins. fight. refused to 451 Romans B.C.E. write down laws. 367 One B.C.E. consul must be 287 Plebeians B.C.E. pass laws for plebeian. Early Romans were divided into two classes: patricians and plebeians. everyone. The wealthy landowners of ancient Rome were the patricians. Who would mostly likely say the following quote: “I fight Rome’s wars, but I can’t vote.”? _Plebeians Why were the plebeians unhappy when the Republic was first set up? _They had no say in making the laws. The Twelve Tables were the foundation of Roman law, detailing all the laws regarding walls, courts, and property. o The Plebeians followed more laws than before when the Twelve Tables were created. o This finally made the Plebeians equal citizens. What changed as a result of the action shown in the image to the left? Patricians had less power. What was the final change that made plebeians equal citizens? Twelve Tables Who was the military leader of Carthage that attacked the Roman territory by crossing the Alps? Hannibal The picture above is of Rome and Carthage during the second period of Rome expansion. What do you notice about the picture above? Most battles were fought at sea. Why did some in Rome want to totally destroy Carthage during the 3rd Punic War? Rome feared they would gain power again and become the Mediterranean power. Looking at the map, Rome added these lands to its territory as a result of Punic Wars. The Fall of the Republic How did Rome’s expansion affect the plebeians? More plebeians had to serve in the army. To win the votes of the poor, Roman politicians began providing cheap food and entertainment. This policy of “bread and circuses” which helped many dishonest rulers come to power also ensured that the poor wouldn’t rebel. The people who killed Julius Caesar wanted to give power back to the Senate, but their actions had an unexpected effect. What was the effect? The beginning of a civil war What were the causes of the end of the Roman Republic? Spread of slavery in the agricultural system; civil wars; leadership issues The Early Empire A long era of peace began with Augustus and lasted until A.D. 180. This period of Roman peace was called Pax Romana. Why was the road system important in ancient Rome? It connected many of the cities of the Roman Empire and allowed for better travel and trade.