Andrew Jackson

The Original Democrat: 1829-1837
Occupation & Educational Background
 Jackson was born on March 15, 1767, shortly after his parents
immigrated to America from Ireland. His father died before he
was born.
He grew up in a Scott-Irish community bordering the
Appalachians, and was somewhere on the border of modern
North and South Carolina
He was sparsely educated in a field school in the community.
He also was a saddle maker at the outset of his life
Before being elected, he was: the military governor of Florida, a
senator for Tennessee, and a member of the House for Tennessee
 His vice presidents were John C. Calhoun (1829-1832)
and Martin Van Buren (1833-1837)
 Secretaries of State: Martin Van Buren (1829-1831);
Edward Livingston (1831-1833); Louis Mclane (18331834); John Forsyth (1834-1837)
 Secretary of War: John H. Eaton (1829-1831); Lewis
Cass (1831-1836)
 States admitted into the Union: Arkansas 1836, and
Michigan 1837
Election of 1824
 Returning Champ- John Q. Adams
VP- John Calhoun
Party: Democratic Republican
Popular Votes: 113,000
Electoral Votes: 84
House Votes: 13
 Challenger- Andrew Jackson
 VP- John Calhoun
 Party: Democratic Republican
 Popular Votes: 151,000
 Electoral Votes: 99
 House Votes: 7
Election of 1824
 William Crawford (Democratic Republican)
Popular Votes: 41,000
Electoral Votes: 41
House Votes: 4
 Henry Clay (Democratic Republican)
Popular Votes: 47,500
Electoral Votes: 37
House Votes: 0
1824 Election Scandal
 In 1824, Andrew Jackson rightfully won the election-
he won in both the popular vote and in the electoral
vote. However, it was such a close race, that neither he
nor Adams had enough electoral votes to win. This
made it go to a House vote. If all House members had
voted with their states, Jackson would have won.
However, Henry Clay sold his vote to Adams under the
Election of 1824
Political Party
Popular Vote
Electoral Vote
John Quincy
John Calhoun
Andrew Jackson
John Calhoun
William Crawford
Nathaniel Macon
Henry Clay
Nathon Sanford
Election of 1828
 Challenger- Andrew Jackson
VP- John Calhoun
Party: Democratic
Popular Votes: 642,000
Electoral Votes: 178
 Returning Champ- John Adams
VP- Richard Rush
Party: National Republicans
Popular Votes: 501,000
Electoral Votes: 83
Fun Facts
 Andrew Jackson was the first member of the modern
day democratic party
 He unknowingly also created the icon of the donkeywhen he was running for president, his opponents
called him a jackass, and he was so amused, that he
called himself that for a short while. A cartoonist then
used that emblem in a popular cartoon, and then it
became more widely used.
 On his deathbed, he said he had only two regrets in
life. One was that he had been ‘unable to shoot Henry
Clay or to hang John Calhoun’, the later the former VP
Election of 1828
Vice Presidential Political
Popular Vote
Andrew Jackson
John Calhoun
John Quincy
Richard Rush
501,967 43.68% 83
178 68.2%
0.39% 0
Election of 1832
 Returning Champ- Andrew Jackson
VP-Martin Van Buren
Party- Democratic
Popular Votes: 702,000
Electoral Votes: 219
Strongest Challenger- Henry Clay
VP- John Sergeant
Party- National Republican
Popular Votes: 474,000
Electoral votes: 49
Election of 1832
PresidentialCandidate Vice PresidentialCandidate PoliticalParty
Popular Vot
ectoral Vote
Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren Democratic 702,735 54.74% 219 76.0%
Henry Clay John SergeantNat'l Republican 474,107 36.93% 49 17.0%
John Floyd Henry Lee
Ind. Democrat
0 0.00% 11 3.8%
William Wirt Amos Ellmaker Anti-Masonic 99,817 7.78% 7
Others 7,061
0.55% 0 0.0%
Andrew Jackson Becomes
 Nominated by the Tennessee Legislature for President
 Defeated John Quincy Adams in 1928
 First President to invite the public to the White House
Ball honoring the inaguration
Cult of Domesticity Takes Root
 A view of the new middle class of Woman and how they
should act
 Women needed to exhibit four main characteristics :
Piety- more religious than men
Purity- pure in heart , mind, and body
Submission- submissive to men
Domesticity- division between work and home, where home was the
wife’s domain.
 These ideas and virtues were found everywhere including
women's magazines, advice books, and popular culture.
 In the end, lead to sexism which made woman seem
inferior to men
Veto of the Maysville Road Bill
 On May 27 1830, President Jackson vetoed bill which
allowed the Federal Government to purchase stock in
the Maysville Road company
 Jackson viewed the project as a local matter and
believe giving federal funds was unconstitutional
 Veto of the Maysville Road bill indicated a shift in how
the federal government intends to pay for internal
 Meanwhile, opponents interpreted the move as an
abuse of power.
Webster- Hayne Debate
 One of the most famous debates in the Senate
 Began about the topic of restricting Western Land
 Senators from Western states viewed this argument
as Northeastern way of preserving their cheap labor
 Hayne began the debate by stating that States
should control their lands, not the feds
 Webster said that this would ruin the Union
 Webster instantly became famous for his
magnificent speech and the issue evaporated
Indian Removal Act
 Signed into law on May 30, 1830
 authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands west
of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within
existing state borders.
 A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the
relocation policy
 Affected tribes include the Cherokee, Chickasaw,
Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes
Nat Turners Rebellion
 Nat Turner, a slave owned by Joseph Travis believed he
was chosen by G-d to start a slave rebellion
Turner and seven other slaves killed Travis and his
family, Killed in total 50 whites
Turner hoped this would start a rebellion but he was
only joined by 75 other slaves
3,000 members of state militia sent to deal with Turner
More than a hundred innocent slaves were killed
Nat Turner was eventually executed November 11, 1831
Black Hawk War (1831-32)
 In May of 1832 Sac and Fox Indians under the
leadership of Black Hawk returned to their homes
across the Mississippi River
Their return to northern Illinois sparked widespread
panic among white settlers
Illinois Governor Reynolds quickly called up the
Short war gave momentum to Indian removal acts
Known for giving young Abraham Lincoln his brief
military service
Peggy Eaton Affair
 Peggy O’Neale was a vivacious women who attracted
attention of John Eaton
She then married John Eaton who became Secretary of
War to Jackson
Jackson’s Vice President, John Calhoun and his wife
Florida Calhoun insulted and hated Mrs. Eaton
The major significance of the scandal was that John
Caldwell Calhoun became the first vice president to resign
from office, and be replaced by Martin Van Buren
There was so much drama that some of the cabinet also
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
 A U.S Supreme Court
 The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction
against laws passed by the state of Georgia
 Which deprived them of rights within its boundaries
 The Supreme Court did not hear the case on its
 It ruled that it had no original jurisdiction in the
matter, as the Cherokee were a dependent nation, with
a relationship to the United States
First Issue of The Liberator Published
 On January 1st 1831, William Garrison published the
first issue of "The Liberator."
 This newspaper was dedicated to the immediate
ending of slavery.
 The abolitionists played an important role in
developing opposition to slavery.
Worcester v. Georgia
 U.S Supreme Court Case
 Held that the Georgia Criminal statue which prohibits
non-Indians from being present on Indian lands
without a license from a state was: Unconstitutional
 Laid out the relationship between state, tribe, and
federal government
South Carolina Ordinance of
 In 1828, Congress passed a high protective tariff that the
southern states felt only benefited the industrialized
 The nullification in South Carolina, allowed South
Carolina to completely disqualify the tariff in South
 As far as South Carolina was concerned, no tariff existed
Jackson Proclamation in response
to S.C Ordinance of Nullification
 Jackson Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
stated outlines the actions taken by the South
Carolina legislature;
It rejects the insistence on state sovereignty,
Focus’s on the preservation of the Union as the
primary issue
It declares nullification to be "incompatible with the
existence of the Union”
The proclamation also appeals to citizens to resist the
violation of the constitution.
Veto of Bill to re-charter the
Second Bank of U.S
 On July 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill
that would have renewed the corporate charter for the
Second Bank of the United States
 The Second Bank of the United States was created in the
aftermath of the War of 1812
 Jackson felt that it neither necessary nor proper for the
federal government to authorize and permit the existence
of an institution so big that only directly benefited a
privileged few.
Force Act
 The force bill enacted in 1833 consists of 8 sections that
expanded Presidential Powers
 Originally intended to allow President Jackson use of
whatever force to enforce Federal tariffs
 Intended to stop South Carolinas refusal to collect tariffs
during the Nullification Crisis
 The importance of the Force Bill is that it is the first piece
of legislation to publicly deny the right of withdrawal of
individual states
Andrew Jackson Begins Second
Term as President
 For the first time in American history, candidates for president
and vice-president had been chosen in national nominating
 The Democrats nominated Andrew Jackson for president and
Martin Van Buren of New York
 The National Republicans chose Henry Clay of Kentucky for
 Jackson won handily, polling 688,242 votes to 473,462 for Henry
Clay. In the electoral college, Jackson won 219 votes to only 49 for
Compromise Tariff
 The Tariff of 1833 (Compromise Tariff) was proposed by
Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as a resolution to
the Nullification Crisis
 It was adopted to gradually reduce the rates after
southerners objected to the tariffs of Jackson and
threatened withdrawal from the Union.
Cyrus McCormick invents the
 The invention of the reaping machine by Cyrus Hall
McCormick in Virginia brought about an end to
tedious handiwork
 It also encouraged the invention and manufacture of
other labor-saving farm implements and machinery
 It could harvest more grain than five men using the
earlier cradles.
Samuel Colt Patents the
 Samuel Colt invented the first revolver, a gun named after
its inventor "Colt", and after its revolving cylinder
 Before the Colt revolver only one and two-barrel flintlock
pistols had been invented for hand held use
 Colt also greatly contributed to the use of interchangeable
parts.Colt wanted all the parts on every Colt gun to be
interchangeable and made by machine.
Treaty of New Echota sighed with
 The treaty established terms under which the entire
Cherokee Nation was expected to cede its territory in
the Southeast and move west to the Indian Territory
 The treaty was not approved by the Cherokees but it
was still ratified by the U.S senate
 The Treaty became the basis for the forced removal of
Indian nations also known as the “Trail of Tears”
Alexis de Tocqueville writes
Volume I of Democracy in America
 Democracy in America is classic French text written by
Alexis de Tocqueville
 In the book, Tocqueville examines the democratic
revolution that he believed had been occurring over
the past seven-hundred years
 In 1831, Tocqueville and his friend were sent by the
French Government to America to study the prison
 However Tocqueville used this as a pretext to study
American Society
Beginning of Second Seminole War
 By the terms of the Treaty of Paynes Landing (1832),
the Seminole were supposed to migrate west of the
Mississippi River within 36 months
 The largest faction of Seminole, led by their
chief Osceola refused to go
 A war ensued where thousands of Seminoles died, and
cost America 30 million dollars
 A few hundred managed to remain in the Everglades
under the leadership of Billy Bowlegs, their principal
chief, where the third Seminole war would begin.
Texas War for Independence
 Texas used to be an republic of Mexico
 They invited Americans to settle in the sparsely populated
area of Texas
The differences between the two nations caused a
aggressive situation
The Texas Revolution began in 1835 when the Americans
thwarted the attempts of Mexican soldiers, to disarm them.
In the end, Texas won over Mexico and became
Ten years later, Texas was annexed by the United States.
Specie Circular
 The Specie Circular (Coinage Act) was an executive
order issued by President Jackson in 1836
 It was carried out by President Martin Van Buren
because it was one of Jacksons last acts
 It required payment for government land to be in gold
and silver
First McGuffey's Readers Published
 McGuffey's Readers were the first textbooks used in
public schools
 The first reader of 1841 introduced the McGuffey's
ethical code
 The books outline history, biology, astronomy,
zoology, botany; table manners, behavior towards
family, attitudes toward God and teachers, the poor;
the great and the good.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren
River Bridge
 In 1785, the Massachusetts legislature incorporated the
Charles River Bridge Company to construct a bridge and
collect tolls.
In 1828, the legislature established the Warren Bridge
Company to build a free bridge nearby.
The new bridge deprived the old one of traffic and tolls.
The Charles River Bridge Company filed suit, claiming the
legislature had defaulted on its initial contract.
“In a 5-to-2 decision, the Court held that the state had not
entered a contract that prohibited the construction of
another bridge on the river at a later date.”
John Deere invents steel tipped
 In 1837, John Deere designed the first cast steel plow
that greatly helped the Great Plains farmers.
 The large plows were made for cutting the tough
prairie ground which were called "grasshopper plows."
 The plow was made of wrought iron and had a steel
share that could cut through sticky soil without
 John Deere became a millionaire selling his steel
Quotes about Jackson
 Positive The Soldier Boy of the First War of Independence
The Veteran Hero
of the Second;
Now the Honest, Unassuming Farmer of Tennessee
-the magazine Albany Argus in 1828
 The first of statesmen, he never devised, he never framed a
measure. He was the most candid of men, and was capable
of the profoundest dissimulation. A most law-defying, lawobeying citizen. A stickler for discipline, he never hesitated
to disobey his superior. A democratic autocrat. An urbane
savage. –His biography by James Parton
Quotes about Jackson
 Negative
 "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military
glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual
disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether
unfit for the office.”- Albert Gallatin
 “Adams supporters finally got organized and returned fire
with a vengeance. Jackson, they said, had aided Aaron Burr
when the latter conspired against the union in 1806, and
had invaded Florida and nearly started an international
incident. In fact, he had the personality of a dictator. Not
only that, he couldn’t spell (supposedly, he spelled
“Europe” “Urope”)”.
Influences, Consequences, and Impact
 Andrew Jackson was anti-federalist, and anti-bureaucracy minded
 This was shown in his fight against the existence of a national bank
 Andrew Jackson was a charismatic man, and good at giving orders, but bad at taking
 He was peoples person, and also kind of crazy
 He weakened Congress, and Disobeyed the Supreme Court
 He had harsh Indian removal policies
 His cause and what he stood for has mostly failed in the modern world. The government
is a large bureaucracy, and very involved in civilian life. It is significantly more powerful
than the states, which Jackson abhorred.
 Andrew Jackson had significant influence on the president after him, Van Buren. This
was because VB was his vice president
 He was a man of the south, and used his background as a campaigning platform
 He was also one of many presidents who were military war heroes before becoming
 At the end of the day, Andrew Jackson was a pretty awesome guy.
He was was the first president who someone tried to assassinate.
He was also the the first President to survive assassination.
 Here is how you know the gods loved this man: The assassin had
2 pistols on him at the time. Andrew Jackson was an old man at
this point. The shooter fired one pistol, and then the other. On a
dry, clear day, both pistols misfired. Andrew Jackson then closed
the gap and assaulted him with his cane, whilst others disarmed
him. He already had the nickname ‘Old Hickory’, but he earned
it here.
 Another testament to his greatness was when he dueled a man,
agreed to shoot second, took a bullet to the chest, whipped out
his pistol, shot the man dead, and lived to tell the tale.
The End
 By Drew Turner and Miriam Kaufman
 Period 7
 10-7-11