Key Features (description) of
CVH refers to the health of the heart and blood vessels
Disease include coronary heart disease (heart attack), stroke, hypertension
Reasons for
as a NHPAs
Contributes significantly to the Burden of Disease in Australian.
Second leading contributor to total DALYs. Leading cause of premature death. Contributes significantly to YLL
●Cost of bypass surgery
to overcome blocked
●Ambulance costs in
case of a heart attack
●cost of medication to
lower blood pressure
●rehabilitation after
heart attack
●Cost of treatment paid
through Medicare and
cost of public hospital
for treatment for
someone who has CVD
●Cost of medication paid
through the
Pharmaceutical Benefits
Scheme (PBS)
●Cost to the
government and private
organisations of health
promotion programs. EG
Heart Foundation “Tick”
●Cost of a carer for someone
who has suffered a heart
attack or stroke and is unable
to work - transport, shopping,
cleaning, washing, cooking
●Loss of income as a person
cannot work because of their
heart attack or stroke
●The cost of social security
payments through
Centrelink for someone who
cannot work or is disabled
because of heart attack or
●Loss of taxation revenue
by the government because
of person is unable to work
and not pay taxes
●Loss of productivity by the
person who cannot work or
a person who has to give up
work to care for the person
and friends
●Person may
experience a range of experience loss and
sadness because of the
emotions – sadness,
person around them
anger, frustration,
who has suffered a heart
fear, despair.
attack or stroke
●loss of confidence
and independence
because of injury
Determinants – biological, behavioural, social and the physical environment
that act as risk factors for
Biological determinants
Age – heart loses its efficiency as people age
Sex being male. Carry fat around the abdomen. This is a risk factors for CVD
Genetics – having a predisposition and family member with heart disease increases the risk.
 Body weight – being overweight or obese puts strain in the heart
High blood pressure – the heart has to work harder to pump blood. Puts strain on the heart
High blood cholesterol – increases risk of fat deposits around the artery walls. Prevents the
blood from getting to the heart and brain
Social determinants
SES – Low SES – more likely to be obese and higher rates of smoking- CVD
Unemployment– leads to stress and puts pressure on the heart
Food security – higher intake of energy dense foods increasing rate of obesity and CV rates
Early life experiences – habits learnt in early life (food intake, exercise) carried through later
Stress in the workplace, prolonged periods of stress greater risk of heart attack and high
blood pressure
Behavioural determinants
Excessive Alcohol use – high in kilojoules. Can lead to obesity which is a risk factor for CVD.
Tobacco use – speeds up the deposits of fat deposits around the inside of the artery walls.
Prevents the blood from getting to the heart and brain
Physical inactivity – the heart muscle weakens and becomes less effective
Dietary intake – diet high in salt, saturated fat and trans fats and sugar leads to overweight and obesity which is a risk factor for CVD
Physical environment
Work environment – a work environment that does not allow times for physical activity
such as walking up stairs increases the risk of obesity which is a risk factor for CVD
Access to recreational facilities – if an individual lacks access to recreational facilities such
as gyms and sporting clubs they may not exercise as much. This may increase the risk of
obesity which is a risk factor for CVD
Environmental tobacco smoke – can increase the risk of CVD by speeding up the process
of fat deposits in the arteries restricting blood to the heart and brain
Nutrition as a determinant of health for
Risk Nutrients for Cardiovascular Health
Saturated &
Trans fats
Contains Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol – risk factor for
atherosclerosis -> CVD
Stimulates the liver to produce cholesterol, further increases
atherosclerosis -> CVD
Carbohydrates, Can lead to weight gain, obesity which is a risk factor for CVD
Protein, Fats
Increases blood volume and contributes to hypertension ->
increases risk of heart attack and stroke
Protective Nutrients for Cardiovascular Health
Increases the feeling of fullness which can reduce overeating,
obesity and risk of CVD
Reduces blood cholesterol levels (excreted out of body) and
reduces risk of atherosclerosis and CVD
Reduces the LDL cholesterol, which reduces the rate of
atherosclerosis and CVD
May increase HDL levels which decreases blood cholesterol levles
Reduces the LDL cholesterol, which reduces the rate of
atherosclerosis and CVD
Omega 3 increases elasticity of blood vessels and prevents blood
clots, reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke
Contributes no kilojoules to energy intake, so can reduce risk of
obesity and CVD
A health promotion program relevant to
associated with CVH
and to reduce the burden of disease
N “Tick Program”
O The Heart Foundation
F Influence the nutritional content and labelling of foods by encouraging producers to meet strict standards enforced by Heart Foundation
 After applying for the Tick and passing strict food and labelling testing, producers pay a fee to bear the Tick logo on their product
The Tick program guides Australians in their food choices
Individuals to easily identify healthier food options quickly and easily when compare to similar foods.
EG a meat pie with the “Tick” will have lower saturated and trans fats and sodium than other pies.
Swapping a Big Mac meal for a “Tick” approved lean beef burger slashes 70% of saturated fat, half the Kjs and third of salt
O To reduce the effects of heart disease – stroke and disease of blood vessels