Consumer Behavior

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CHAPTER EIGHT
Perception
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Information Processing for
Consumer Decision Making
2
CHAPTER
8
The Nature of Perception
3
• Exposure: when a stimulus comes within
range of our sensory receptor nerves
• Random vs. Deliberate
• Attention: when the stimulus activates one or
more sensory receptor nerves and the resulting
sensations go to the brain for processing
• Low vs. High Involvement
• Interpretation: the assignment of meaning to
sensations
• Low vs. High Involvement
CHAPTER
8
Consumer Insight 8-1
4
• What ethical questions, if any, do you see in
using product placement as a marketing tool?
Are your feelings the same across all product
categories?
• Are there unique issues and perhaps rules that
should govern product placements in movies
targeting children?
• How could a marketer determine how much to
pay for a brand placement in a particular
movie or television program episode?
CHAPTER
8
Stimulus Factors
5
• Size and Intensity – influence the
probability of paying attention
• Color and Movement – serve to attract
attention
• Position – placement of the object in a
person’s visual field
CHAPTER
8
The Impact of Size
on Advertising Readership
6
CHAPTER
8
Color and Size Impact on Attention
7
CHAPTER
8
Stimulus Factors
8
• Isolation – the separation of a stimulus object
from other objects
• Format – manner in which the message is
presented
• Contrast – the tendency to attend more
closely to stimuli that contrast with their
background
CHAPTER
8
Use of Isolation and Contrast
9
CHAPTER
8
Individual Factors
10
• Interest – a reflection of overall lifestyle
and the ability to attend to information
• Need – reflection of long-term goals and
plans and their short-term needs
CHAPTER
8
Situational Factors
11
Program Involvement:
CHAPTER
8
Involvement with a Magazine and
Advertising Effectiveness
12
CHAPTER
8
Nonfocused Attention
13
• Hemispheric Lateralization – activity
that takes place on each side of the brain
• Subliminal Stimuli – a message that is
presented so fast that one is not aware of
seeing or hearing it
CHAPTER
8
Determinants of Interpretation
14
Individual
characteristics
Stimulus
characteristics
Situational
characteristics
CHAPTER
8
Interpretation:
Gestalt
Cognitive
Affective
Interpretation
15
The assignment of meaning to sensations
• Cognitive interpretation – process
whereby stimuli are placed into existing
categories of meaning
• Affective interpretation – the
emotional or feeling response triggered
by a stimulus such as an ad
CHAPTER
8
Interpretation Characteristics
16
• Individual:
• Learning
• Expectations
• Situational:
• Contextual Priming
• Stimulus:
• Sensory Discrimination
CHAPTER
8
Interpretation Extended…
17
• Interpreting Images – What does this
mean?
• Consumer Inferences – the process by
which consumers assign a value to an
attribute or item not contained in an ad
on the basis of other data in the ad
CHAPTER
8
Impact on Marketing Strategy
18
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CHAPTER
8
Impact on Retailers
Brand Name and Logo Development
Effective Media Strategy
Advertisement and Package Design
Warning labels and Disclaimers
Evaluating Advertising effectiveness
Ethical Concerns
Logos Influence on Image
19
CHAPTER
8
Group Exercise:
Discussion questions #37 & 38
20
• Break into groups of three
• Present your brand name and logos
of the five items to the group
• Have the group discuss their
perceptions of your brand
• Discuss differences in your
intentions and perceptions
CHAPTER
8
Exposure to Magazines
21
CHAPTER
8
Consumer Insight 8-2
22
• How does ambush marketing work?
• Ambush marketing does what harm, if
any?
• What ethical issues, if any, arise in
ambush marketing?
CHAPTER
8
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