Landforms & Changes to Earth Study Guide

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Landforms & Changes to Earth
Study Guide
Mrs. Prebish Class
Test Date: Wednesday, February 4, 2015
Weathering
Process of rocks being broken down
into smaller parts.
What Causes Weathering?
Water Causes Weathering
Ice Causes Weathering
Wind Causes Weathering
Erosion
Erosion is the carrying away of pieces of weathered rock
Weathering FIRST, then erosion
Earth’s Surface – A Big Puzzle
• Earth’s Surface: Made up of large pieces of soil/rock (plates)
that fit together like puzzle pieces
• Rapid Changes: Earth’s surface changes quickly (day or week)
Volcanic Eruptions
• Volcanic eruptions
happen because one
plate is pushing
under another plate
The force of that plate pushing causes magma to
flow up into the mountain.
Eventually the pushing force gets so great that the
magma breaks through the mountain or erupts.
Volcanoes changes the land by...
Breaking the peak of the mountain off
Making extra hills down the side of the
mountain (from cooled lava)
Landslides
• Landslide is the downward and outward movement of
rock and soil down the side of a hill or mountain.
• Landslides can be caused by:
– Gravity pulling on loose rock/soil
– Excessive water causing large chunks of land to slide
Earthquakes
• Earthquakes happen when two plates are rubbing
against each other.
• Earthquakes changes the land by...
Offsetting rocks/soil horizontally
(objects that were once lined up
closely are now moved away from
each other)
Offsetting rocks/soil vertically
Offsetting rocks/ soil
(Objects that were once at equal Spreading them apart
heights are now setting where
and leaving a crack
one is high and the other is low) between them
Hill- a piece of land that rises higher than the land around it
(under 2,000 feet high). It looks like a bump in the Earth. They
are easier to climb because they are less steep than mountains.
Mountain- a piece of land that rises higher than the land around it
(over 2,000 feet high). The sides are steep and harder to climb
than hills. Formed by the crust’s plates moving together.
Plains- a large area of flat (or nearly flat) land that
is covered by grasses and sometimes a few trees.
Valley- a low area of land between mountains or
hills. They can have rivers flowing through them.
End Study Guide
Mrs. Prebish Class
Test Date: Wednesday, February 4, 2015
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