Environmental Laboratory Central Analytical Facility Stellenbosch

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Environmental Laboratory
Central Analytical Facility - Stellenbosch University
Victoria Street, Lombardi Building, Room 3016
The Environmental laboratory undertakes analysis of soil, sediment, rock, water and plant
materials for environmental, ecological, geological and agricultural investigations. The
laboratory is equipped with a range of sophisticated modern equipment, such as atomic
absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography, elemental combustion analysis, UV-visible
spectrometry, titrimetry, pH, Redox, electrical conductivity measurements, and X-ray
fluorescence spectrometry.
Laboratory manager
XRF analyst
Esmé Spicer
Tel: (021) 8084788
Fax: (021) 8084791
Email: [email protected]
Soil Analyst
Mr M W Gordon
Tel: (021) 8084788
Fax: (021) 8084791
Email: [email protected]
Water Analyst
Me Wernich Foit
Food Science Water laboratory
Tel: (021) 8084788
Fax: (021) 8084791
Email: [email protected]
Sample Preparation Technician
Mr H Achilles
Tel: (021) 8084788
Fax: (021) 8084791
e-mail: [email protected]
Flame Atomic Absorption
Spectrometry (AAS)



The lab is equipped with two dedicated AAS
instruments: the Varian Spectra AA-250 PLUS and the
more modern Varian AA 240FS. The latter is fast
sequential, meaning that it can determine more than
one element in a sample before moving to the next
sample. One instrument is dedicated to trace elements
(e.g. zinc, copper, lead) and the other to major
elements such as calcium, magnesium, sodium and
potassium. Calibrations are performed with certified
standard reference materials from Riedel-de Haen®.
Detection limits are in the ppm range, depending on the
method and matrix. International reference materials
are used for precision tests.
Sample requirements: liquid samples 20 ml, solid soils
1 kg, plant materials 20-100 g (confirm with Matt
Gordon)
Some sample preparation is required, prior to the final
analysis, for soil and plant samples. This involves
drying, crushing, milling, extraction and digestion of
the samples. The sample preparation and prepreparation for the ICP-MS laboratory can be
undertaken by the laboratory if clients do not have
their own facilities.
VARIAN AA-240FS
Elemental analysis (carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen)


The EA Euro 3000 is a compact, fully automatic
elemental analyzer for the determination of
total wt% C, H and N in soil, plant and solid
samples. It is based on innovative turbo-flash
combustion technology employing pressurized
oxygen injection and represents a quantum
leap in the art of dynamic flash combustion as
well as high temperature (HT) pyrolytic oxygen
and hydrogen analysis for elemental and
isotopic analysis. Detection limits are typically
0.01 wt%, depending on the material.
Calibration is performed with certified
standards from Eurovector® and these are
also used for routine quality control.
Sample requirements: solid samples 10 g
EA Euro 3000
Ion chromatography


The DX-120 ion chromatograph is used for a
multitude of water-soluble anions in aqeous
matrices. The instrument combines efficient
isocratic separations with digital conductivity
detection to provide highly selective and sensitive
analyses of soil water extracts and water
samples. This instrument is fully automated
allowing a large sample throughput. Typical
analytes are nitrate (NO3-), nitrite(NO2-),
chloride(Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), Phosphate (PO43-)
and fluoride (F-). Detection limits are typically in
the ppm range and calibration is performed with
certified reference materials from Dionix® and
these standards are used for routine quality
control.
Sample requirements: Liquid 10 ml, solids 20g
DX-120 Ion
Chromatograph
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF)
XRF is ideal for rapid and accurate whole bulk elemental
analysis in rock or soil samples. The gas-flow proportional
counting detector and scintillation detector, or a
combination of the two, are used to cover the elements
fluorine to uranium. Major elements are analysed on a
fused glass bead and trace elements are analysed on a
powder briquette. A wide range of international (NIST®)
and national (SARM®) standards is used in the
calibration procedures and quality control (precision and
accuracy) for both major and trace element analyses.
Detection limits for the elements quoted, depending on
the matrix (combination of elements present), are
typically
0.5
ppm.
Loss on Ignition (LOI) is a test used in XRF major
element analysis which consists of strongly heating a
sample of the material at a specified temperature,
allowing volatile substances to escape or oxygen is
added, until its mass ceases to change. The L.O.I. is
made of contributions from the volatile compounds
H2O+, OH-, CO2, F, Cl, S; in parts also K, Na (if heated
for too long); or alternatively added compounds O2
(oxidation, e.g. FeO to Fe2O3), later CO2 (CaO to
CaCO3).
Sample requirements (Milled)
Major elements: 5 g
Trace elements:10 g
Other analyses
and services offered to environmentalists


Routine determinations of pH, EC (electrical conductivity),
redox potential and spectrophotometry are also performed on
aquous samples. Other specialized extractions and analysis
(acid dissolutions, ammonium-acetate extractions, water
extractions, EDTA extractions) of plants, soil, water, effluents
and fertilizers can be carried out on request. Detection limits
are strongly method dependant. Known certified reference
materials are used for pH EC, Redox potential analysis and
extractions calibration and routine quality control.
Sample requirements: confirm with Matt Gordon
Environmental Laboratory Analyses user pricelist (prices quoted
per sample, VAT excl for industry projects )
Services offered
Standard Soil analysis
Method/Range
pH, AAS (Na, K, Ca, Mg), spectrophotometer
Projects for
academics in SA
80
Standard Soil analysis with additional trace
elements
pH, AAS (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, P, Zn),
spectrophotometer
100
110
Standard Plant analysis
Light elements analysis
AAS (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, P, Zn)
Elemental analyser (C, N, H)
100
70
110
110
Anion analysis (additional R22.00 for Soil samples) Ion Chromatography
60
83
pH or Ec or Redox potential or spectrophotometry pH or Ec or Redox potential or spectrophotometry
20
25
Titrations for carbonates and bicarbonates
wet chemical titration
35
50
Walkley Black titration
wet chemical titration
55
100
XRF major element fused bead analysis on rocks
or soils
XRF (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Total Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO,
Na2O, CaO, P2O5, Cr2O3, LOI determination)
160
230
XRF trace element pressed pellet analysis on
rocks or soils
XRF (Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Ga, Ba, Rb, Sr, Y, Nb, Zr, U, Th, Pb,
Ce, La, Nd)
130
200
100
120
250
350
XRF major element on pressed pellet (Cu Matte) Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, S
XRF calibration for additional element analysis on XRF method determined by element abundance and
rocks or soils (price per additional element)
sample type
Projects for external
clients
90
Environmental Laboratory sample preparation pricelist (prices quoted per sample,
VAT excl for industry projects )
Sample preparation pricelist (if samples are not handed in to the laboratory in the form ready for analysis)
Projects for
Projects for external
academics in SA
clients
Services offered
Technique used for sample preparation
XRF crushing
Jaw crusher
15
30
XRF milling
Zibb milling
40
50
XRF fused bead for ICP analysis
Fusion disc (milled powder supplied by client)
50
70
Rock/soil acid digestion
Digestion in water bath
100
120
Environmental Laboratory
Water division

The Environmental laboratory serves the water community by
offering the following analyses:
 Basic Drinking water tests
 Basic Sewage water tests
 Basic and Specialised microbiological testing (MPN+MUG method,
Colilert, Pseudomonas spp., Klebiella spp., Surface counts,
Microcystis toxicity / toxins)
 Eutrophication test package (including Chlorifil a content)
 Trace and ultra-trace element analysis (ICP Laboratory, Riana
Rossouw, tel 3114, [email protected])
Water analysis prices Microbiological indicators
Test
Aerobic colony count
Heterotrophic plate count bacteria
Total coliforms (Not Drinking Water)
Faecal coliforms (Not Drinking Water)
Escherichia coli (Not Drinking Water)
Total coliforms and E.coli (Not Drinking Water)
Pseudomonas spp.
Klebsiella
Faecal coliforms and E.coli (Not drinking water)
Faecal coliforms and E.coli (Not drinking water)
Total coliforms and E.coli (Drinking water)
Total coliforms and E.coli (Not Drinking Water)
Method/Range
Plate count agar
R2A agar
Petrifilm (Membrane filter)
Petrifilm (Membrane filter)
Petrifilm (Membrane filter)
VRB agar + MUG
Membrane filtration
Membrane filtration
Multiple Tube Fermentation (MPN)
Multiple Tube Fermentation + MUG supplement (MPN +
MUG)
Colilert
Colilert
Price / sample in SA rand, excl. VAT
Projects for
Projects for external
academics in SA
clients
20
35
50
80
60
90
60
90
60
90
55
100
60
90
60
90
90
120
110
180
220
140
220
250
Water analysis prices: Physical and Chemical tests
Test
Ammonium
Ammonium
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Phosphate (PO4-)
Total cyanide
Total organic carbon (TOC)
Total organic carbon (TOC)
Dissolved oxygen (On site service)
Turbidity
K
Na
Ca
Mg
SO42ClNitrate, Nitrite
F-, BrConductivity (Ec)
pH
Alkalinity
Total Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Settleable solids
Method/Range
0.01 - 2.00 mg/l
0.20 - 8.00 mg/l
0.5 - 3000 mg/l
4 - 40 mg/l
10 - 150 mg/l
25 - 1500 mg/l
500 - 10 000 mg/l
5 - 80 mg/L
50 - 800 mg/l
0.5 - 15 mg/l
10 - 150 mg/l
0.05 - 5.00 mg/l
0.002 - 0.5 mg/l
5 - 80 mg/L
50 - 800 mg/l
All
All
AAS
AAS
AAS
AAS
IC
IC
IC
IC
Probe with calibration solution
Probe with calibration solution
Titration
Probe with calibration solution
Physical method
Physical method
Price / sample in SA rand, excl. VAT
Projects for
Projects for external
academics in SA
clients
40
60
40
60
70
90
60
100
60
100
60
100
60
100
100
200
120
180
70
100
45
55
70
90
80
200
100
200
120
180
45
70
16
25
15.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
100.00
15.00
15.00
30.00
15.00
45.00
15.00
20.00
20.00
50.00
20.00
70.00
23.00
Water analysis prices: Eutrophication tests
Test pack for Eutrophication
Total Organic Carbon (TOC):
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC):
Total Nitrogen (N)
Total Phosphorus (P)
Dissolved Oxygen
pH
Conductivity
Temperature
Aerobic plate count
Chlorophyll a content
TOTAL
US
Other
Other
academics
academics
Incl. VAT
Industry
Industry
Incl. VAT
R 477.00 R 540.00 R 615.60 R 765.00 R 872.10
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