What is a part of speech ?
Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used.
“They heard high pitched
in the middle of the night.”
In this sentence, "cries" is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb "heard."
all night long and all day long.”
But here "cries" is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby.
What is a word? How do we recognize one when we see one?
What is the difference between spoken word and written word?
Humans describe their world by naming objects and actions. They also use words to modify those objects and actions.
Words and syntax (p. 175) – The hungry linguist…
Content word vs. function word (p. 176-77)
Content words carry the main meaning in a sentence
Function words provide grammatical connection between content words (closed-class words)
Meaningful parts that make up a word
Free (stand alone) vs. Bound morpheme
(attached to, affix)
Tree vs. Trees
Bound morphemes in English are present either as prefixes or suffixes but not as infixes
Inflectional vs. derivational morphemes
Inflectional: add to a word without changing the part of speech, only exist as suffix in English
Bottle, bottles/ Big, bigger
Derivational: change meaning, exist as either prefix or suffix
Tie, untie/ work, worker
Derivational prefixes carry meaning, and are thus easier to define.
Derivational suffixes do not carry semantic meaning and are harder to define.
Derivational and inflectional suffixes can
exist in the same word but the inflectional suffix comes last.
Language will likely have attributes from a variety of these categories.
Analytic: One morpheme per word (Chinese)
Synthetic: Multiple morphemes can make up one word (escribiéndomelo)
Agglutinative: Synthetic language with no variation in morphemes (Korean, German?)
Polysynthetic: Super- synthetic, Mohawk:
Washakotya'tawitsherahetkvhta'se means "He ruined her dress"
Choose some morphemes and search for them in an online text. Try to identify the following for each morpheme/word you find.
Base word (root)
Part of speech (category change)
How can a study of morphology help you as an educator? (TPS)
Prefix- carries semantic weight
Suffix- carries grammatical weight
Implication: Invite students to think morphologically when they encounter a new word. Instead of thinking immediately of a dictionary, encourage an analysis of the word parts first.
This level of investigation can be frustrating for students. Employ structural analysis as an additional technique to encourage linguistic curiosity in students but it should not replace other strategies like reading for context.
Sometimes, little words found in big words are separate morphemes-
Sometime they’re not
Implication: Make sure that students know that using the little/big word system is not a
100% dependable system
Schema- the mental file system that organizes information in the brain
Write down the first 5 things that come to mind when you see the following word:
Implication: Helping students to be aware of their own schemas can lead to an increased reading comprehension. Activating background knowledge.
Vocabulary size as evidence for learning vs. acquisition hypothesis (p. 200)
Vocabulary learning through A Clockwork
Orange – exposure to text
What does it mean to know a word?
Having phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic knowledge of the word.
“Many students who appear to speak and understand English quite well still struggle in reading academic texts or passing standardized assessments.”
Academic English vocabulary is made up of words borrowed mostly from Latin and
Greek. Conversational English vocabulary comes form a variety of borrowings.