Chapter Three Lexicon

Chapter Three
(compiled and edited by Jishan, Ma)
I. Fill in the blanks.
1. Take is the __of taking, taken and took.
2. Bound morphemes are classified into two types:__and__
3. An __is pronounced letter by letter, while an __is
pronounced as a word.
4. Lexicon, in most cases, is synonymous with__.
5. Orthographically, compounds are written in three ways:__,
6. All words may be said to contain a root__.
7. A small set of conjunctions, preposition and pronouns
belongs to__class, while the largest part of nouns, verbs,
adjectives and adverbs belongs to__class.
8. __is a reverse process of derivation, and therefore is a
process of shortening.
9. __is extremely productive, because English had lost most
of its inflectional endings by the end Middle English period,
which facilitated the use of words interchangeably as verbs or
nouns, verbs or adjectives, and vice versa.
10. Words are divided into simple, compound and derived words
on the__level.
11. A word formed by derivation is called a __,and a word
formed by compounding is called a __.
12. The poor is an example of __conversion.
II.Choose the best answer.
13. Nouns, verbs and adjectives can be classified as__.
A. lexical words
B. grammatical words
C. function words
D. form words
14.Morphemes that represent tense, number, gender and case are
A. inflectional
C. bound
B. free
D. derivational
15.There are __morphemes in the word denationalization?
A. three
B. four
C. five
D. six
16.In English–ise and–tion are called__.
A. prefixes
B. suffixes
C. infixes
D. free morphemes
17.Morphology is generally divided into two fields: the study of
word–formation and__.
A. affixation
B. etymology
C. inflection
D. root
18.The three subtypes of affixes are: prefix, suffix and__.
A. derivational affix
B. inflectional affix
C. infix
D. back–formation
19.__is a way in which new words may be formed from
already existing words by subtracting an affix which is thought
to be part of the old word.
A. Affixation
B. Back–formation
C. Insertion
D. Addition
20.The word TB is formed in the way of__.
A. acronymy
B. clipping
C. initialism
D. blending
21.There are different types of affixes or morphemes. The affix
“ed”in the word “learned” is known as a(n)__.
A. derivational morpheme
B. free morpheme
C. inflectional morpheme
D. free form
22.The words like comsat and sitcom are formed by __.
A. blending
B. clipping
C. back-formation
D. acronymy
23.The stem of disagreements is__.
A. agreement
B. agree
C. disagree
D. disagreement
24.All of them are meaningful except for__.
A. lexeme
C. morpheme
B. phoneme
D. allomorph
III.Decide whether the following statements are true [T]or
_25.Phonetically,the stress of a compound always falls on the
first element, while the second element receives secondary
_26.Fore as in foretell is both a prefix and a bound morpheme.
_27.Base refers to the part of word that remains when all
inflectional affixes are removed.
_28.In most cases, prefixes change the meaning of the base
whereas suffixes change the word—class of the base.
—29.Conversion from noun to verb is the most productive
process of conversion.
—30.Reduplicative compound is formed by repeating the same
morpheme of a word.
—31.The words whimper, whisper and whistle are formed in the
way of onomatopoeia.
—32.In most cases, the number of syllables of a word
corresponds to the number of morphemes.
—33.Back-formation is a productive way of forming nouns in
Modern English.
—34.Inflection is a particular way of word—formations.
35.We can always tell by the words a compound contains what it
means because the meaning of a compound is always the
sum of the meanings of its parts.
—36.All roots are free and all affixes are bound.
IV.Explain the following terms.
39.Bound morpheme
40.Back clipping
42.Morphological rule
43.Closed–class word
45.Full conversion
V. Answer the following questions.
49.Of all the word–formations, which involve the process of
addition? Which the process of subtraction? And which the
process of transition?
50.Illustrate the axiom, “The actual grammatical classification
of any word is dependent upon its use.”