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No Child Left Behind
Kelly Burja
Melissa Dsouza
Sabrina Tomka
Wendy Walters-Haas
 Common Terms
Fund Distribution
Whose Impacted?
 No Child Left Behind (NCLB): Is designed to
assist school raise the standards for education
and to ensure accountability for the performance
of students. In addition, it is used to bridge the
gap between poor education and low
socioeconomic groups.
 Florida A-Plus Program: Accountability system
that helped to design the NCLB.
 Sunshine State Standards: Implemented in
1996; it provided classroom expectations for
students in Florida.
Title One: This is apart of NCLB that
supports programs in schools and school
districts to improve the learning of children
of low-income families.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): NCLB
uses this to explain that the student is
meeting the state reading and math goals.
The school district’s report card will show if
the goals are met.
 High Qualified Teacher (HQT): NCLB uses this for a
teacher to prove that he or she knows the subjects they
are teaching, has a college degree, and is state-certified.
HQT are used in core subjects.
 School District Report Cards: This gives parents
report cards so they can see the schools in their district
success or not.
 Reading First: Is a program that provides more that a
billion dollars a year to help children learn to read. This
is apart of NCLB; it ensure that children will read on
grade level by the third grade.
 Schools in Need of Improvement: This is referred to
schools receiving Title One funding that does not meet
the state reading and math AYP for @ least 2 years. If
the school receives this, then the students have the
choice to transfer to another public school, including a
public charter school.
 Supplemental Educational Services (SES): This
service has been implemented to give students tutoring
and extra help with schoolwork in subject such as math
and reading. The service is free and most likely takes
place outside regular school hours.
No Child Left Behind
NCLB was designed to:
Create higher educational standards
Produce greater accountability for student
Close the achievement gap between different racial
and socioeconomic groups
NCLB Provisions
1. Establishment of an accountability system
2. Creating higher standards for teachers
3. Testing students annually
4. Encouraging parental involvement
5. Teaching curriculum that had been proven
effective through scientifically-based research
6. Allowing students to transfer out of schools
who did not display adequate yearly progress
NCLB Penalties
Development or revision of improvement
Student transfers
Establishment of additional services
Implementing new curriculum
Removing staff
Extending length of school day or school
Problems with NCLB
 Underfunded mandate
 Lack of consideration
for learning disabled
(LD) students
 Disregard for subjects
other than reading and
Underfunded Mandate Lawsuits
National Education Association (NEA)
Filed lawsuit on April 20, 2005
State of Connecticut
Filed lawsuit on August 22, 2005
Both lawsuits alleged the federal government
was failing to adequately fund NCLB
Underfunded Mandate Lawsuits
Section 9527(a) of the No Child Left Behind
Nothing in the Act shall be construed to…
mandate a State or any subdivision thereof
to spend any funds or incur any costs not
paid for under this Act.
Court Rulings
Both the NEA and Connecticut lawsuits were
dismissed from court on the basis that
Section 9527(a) does not prohibit the
government from imposing underfunded
NEA and Connecticut are appealing the
Disregard for LD Students
 State of Utah
State senate passed a bill
authorizing public schools
to ignore testing mandates
for LD students
 State of Texas
education granted public
schools the right to
exclude LD students from
NCLB mandates
Determining AYP
 NCLB divides students
into five main
 Whites
 Minorities
 Children from poor
 Handicapped students
 Students with low English
Determining AYP
Schools fail to demonstrate adequate
yearly progress when at least one
subgroup fails to display growth and
continued improvement in their test
Learning disabled students as well as
those with low English proficiency
continuously lack to demonstrate growth
and improvement on assessment tests
AYP Misconceptions
Measuring student progress-comparison
of students varies year-year
Failing AYP means school not progressing
AYP reading & math target proficiencynational/state discrepancies
NCLB Testing Mandates
 NCLB requires learning
disabled students to
take standardized tests
at their grade level
 Most students with
severe learning
disabilities are unable
to perform at grade
How do you currently feel about
standardized testing?
NCLB Exemptions
When NCLB was first established, only 1% of
learning disabled students could be exempt
The exemption rate was later increased to
3% by Education Secretary Margaret
NCLB expects 97% of learning disabled
students to learn, function, and perform at
the exact same level as their non-disabled
Demoralizing Effects
Forcing learning disabled students to preform
at such a high ability level causes them to
doubt their intelligence, develop a sense of
inferiority, and become discouraged and
Third grade learning disabled student:
The only thing I have learned this school
year is that I am not smart.
Testing Solutions
 Florida Comprehensive
Assessment Test
 Administer FCAT based
on ability level
 Allow LD students to
take alternative
assessments such as
the Alternative
Assessment Test
Disregard for Subjects
Neglected Subjects
Because NCLB focuses on reading and
math, other subjects are often neglected
or ignored
NCLB has drastically cut classroom time
and funding for subjects such as:
Arts Education
Physical Education
Neglected Subjects – Science
 National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP)
 82% of twelfth graders in
2000 were unable display
science proficiency on a
national NAEP test
 NCLB requires states to begin
administering science
assessment tests in 2007
Percentage of 12th graders proficient in science
 Science scores will not be used
when determining AYP
Point of View on Science Education
 U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century:
More Americans will have to understand and work
competently with science and math on a daily basis…the
inadequacies of our systems of research and education
pose a greater threat to U.S. national security over the next
quarter century than any potential conventional war that we
might imagine.
Neglected Subjects – Arts Education
 Arts education includes:
Creative Writing
Performing Arts
Visual Arts
 NCLB lists arts
education as a core
academic subject
 NCLB does not require
schools to assess
student performance in
any areas of arts
Arts Education Continued
 A study conducted by the Center for Education
Policy revealed that NCLB has reduced arts
education by 22%
 This has lead to the development of many arts
advocacy groups and campaigns:
Arts Education Partnership
Music Education Coalition
National Arts Education Public Awareness Campaign
 Commission on No Child Left Behind
Points of View on Arts Education
 Brenda Welburn – Executive Director of the National
Association of State Boards of Education:
These subjects should be considered as fundamental to a
child’s education as the three “R’s.”
 Mollie Theel – Minnesota art teacher in an interview with
the National Education Association (NEA):
I understand about math and reading. I just want fair time
and respect. Art is not fluff. We teach kids to see in new
ways. We touch the senses. A lot of what I do is applied
math – proportion and ratio, scale and measuring.
Neglected Subjects – P.E.
 National Parent Teacher
Association (NPTA)
40% of elementary schools
nationwide have eliminated
or shortened recess in
response to NCLB
 NPTA in partnership with
the Cartoon Network
have created a program
called Rescuing Recess
Rescuing Recess Campaign
NPTA press release:
The goal of the campaign is to recognize
unstructured break time as an essential element
of the school day and to connect educators,
parents, and kids as advocates to bring back or
keep recess.
Points of View on P.E.
 Anna Weselak – NPTA President:
Children who are physically active do better in the
classroom. The research tells us that even if it means a
reduction in class time, providing more time for physical
activity can lead to increased test scores.
 Beverley Ann Griffin – Mother of a third grade girl in an
interview with the Boston Herald:
Success-driven adults are forgetting we have children in
schools. They are not business executives. They are not 7year-old CEOs. They are children and they need to have a
break in the middle of the day.
How Did We Get Here?
Be it enacted by the senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled. That there shall
be established, at the city of Washington, a Department of
Education, for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as
shall show the condition and progress of education in several States
and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the
organization and management of schools and school systems, and
methods of teaching, as shall aid the people in the United States in
the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and
otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country.
(bill introduced by Representative James Garfield (R-OH) in support of
DOE-currently referred to as USOE), 1867)
Does anyone know how we currently get that
NAEP Tests
Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
passed by L.Johnson, 1965
National student assessment
Responsible party, US Commissioner of
Education (1962-1965), F.Keppel “The nation
could find out about school buildings or discover
how many years children stay in school; it had
no satisfactory way of assessing whether the
time spent in school was effective.”
NCLB Positives
Stats from 2002-05
4th grade reading proficiency increased by 16 %. 50%
of Florida students are reading “at or above” their
particular grade level.
5th grade math proficiency increased by 9%
Black-white achievement gap in reading & hispanicwhite achievement gap in reading narrowed by 6%
Since 2002 graduation percentages have risen from
52% to 65%.
(most recent info according to FL report card)
Sunshine State Standards
 They were approved in 1996 to provide
expectations for Florida students.
 They contain more challenging material than
previous state standards, which focused on
minimum competencies.
 Chosen to provide flexibility for schools in
designing a curriculum based on the local
 As Florida moves toward greater accountability
for student achievement, the Standards have
been further defined.
Sunshine State Standards
In the subjects of: language arts, math,
science, and social studies the Standards
have been expanded to include Grade
Level Expectations (GLE).
These GLE will eventually become the
basis for state assessments in grades 310 in language arts and math, but will
eventually include science and social
Sunshine State Standards
 What are they?
They are broad statements that describe what a child
should know and be able to do at every grade level.
They cover 7 subject areas:
 Social studies
 Science
 Language arts
 Health/physical education
 The arts
 Foreign language
 Mathematics
Sunshine State Standards
 The standards are divided into smaller units
called “benchmarks,” which outline the specific
content, knowledge, and skills that students are
expected to learn in school.
 Each student’s performance on FCAT Reading,
Writing, Mathematics, and Science tests
indicates his or her progress in reaching these
Play part of “A Florida Promise” Chapter
about measuring up.
Florida A-Plus Program
It is a school accountability system that
helped formed the NCLB act.
Each public school is assigned a grade
based on student performance on the
If a school receives 2 “F” in a 4-year
period, its students are offered vouchers to
attend a local private/parochial school – in
the past, changed as of Jan. 2006.
Florida A-Plus Program
Schools are graded based on:
Overall performance of their students on the
The percentage of eligible students who take
the test.
Whether or not students have made annual
learning gains in reading and math, with
particular attention to the reading scores of the
lowest 25% of students in the school.
Florida A-Plus Program
Main Points:
All public schools get letter grades on an A to F
Students in failing schools can transfer to
another school or work with Assistance Plus
school staff to improve their school.
The A+ Plan ends social promotion.
The A+ Plan raises standards for teachers.
Statistics on the Florida A-Plus Program
 75% of all 3rd graders are reading at or above
grade level, compared to 57% in 2001.
 4th graders are performing above the national
average in reading and math.
 The number of high school students taking AP
courses has increased 125% since 1999.
 68% of Florida schools received ‘A’ or ‘B’ grades
compared to the 21% before Florida A-Plus was
put into action.
Title One Funding
 Title 1 is apart of the “Elementary & Secondary
Education Act of 1965”. It was a way of
eliminating any difference in education from the
different levels of economic status.
 The foundation of Title 1 was to help children
who lived in poverty receive the same education
as other children. The ultimate goal was such
that all students are educated equally.
 In 1994 the mission changed to assisting all
disadvantage students met the state standards.
Title One Funding
The way the $ is allocated is based on a
formula; the ratio is the number of
students who live in poverty and receive
free or reduced lunch. According to,
The ratio has to equal 40% of the
This funding affects grades K through high
Title One Funding
 Title 1 is flexible, such that, it can also be used to
improve teachers’ development, the curriculum,
classroom aides, and doing other activities that assist in
improving student performance in the class
 2/3 of the 11 million dollars are used for students in K-6th
grade. About 260,000 preschool children are being
served under the Title 1 guidelines.
 1 million children with disabilities receive Title One. It
also provides aides for students who are not fluent in
English; approximately 2 million students use this aide.
Nationwide Concerns
Some urban schools graduating less than
50% of target grads
28% of grad class entering 2-4 yr colleges
need remedial English & math
According to transcripts 53% of entries
enroll for at least 1 remedial math or
U.S. Conference of Mayors
2004, committed to aligning academic
from elementary-postsecondary levels
’04 commitment to comparable academic
curriculum for all schools within district
standards to college
USCM Solutions
 Create programs w/ elementary, middle & high
school working in conjunction w/ postsecondary
school curriculum
 Encouragement of programs such as GEAR UP &
Project Grad
MUKrH&b=365959 offering financial assistance
 Joint ventures & partnerships w/ postsecondary
USCM Solutions
 Classes @ school w/ job opp exp while in school
 Teacher recruitment w/ housing incentives
 Creating or authorizing charter schools
USCM Solutions
 Sponsoring policies & practices that encourage
& are involved in tutoring, mentoring, school
 Supporting school bond & tax levies
 Encouraging parent involvement
 Facilitating business partnerships w/ schools
USCM Solutions
 Alternatives for at risk & in & out of school youth
 Edu opps for recent released juv offenders &
ending foster care students
 Construct & modernize schools for joint use as
community learning centers
USCM Solutions
Recreation & athletic Options for students
Recognition prog’s for educators
Participate in school board member vote &
superintendent vote
Overseeing of school budget process
Summer & school year job availability for
work exp
NCLB Supporters Claim
 FL 4th in nation for disadvantage student
 Federal education spending higher under
current administration than previous ones, by
 NCLB has received "an enormous amount of
money" at a time "when you're just not seeing
these kinds of increases in other domestic
spending areas” (Heritage Foundation expert,
Krista Kafer quoted)
 What can FGCU students do?
 Contact and get involved in SHS, or find
out more about SSS.
 Vote
 Volunteer-fulfills SL requirement
 Substitute teach-great pay, retirement benefits, work when you want!
 Tell your friends w/ kids to visit hotlinks & implement USCM
suggestions, tell education majors to log onto the hotlinks for ideas
or if looking for SL hours.
 Visit DCF site to find out how you can help a child in need.
 Become a lobbyist
 Attend a school board meeting
Questions For You…
After this presentation…How do you now
feel about standardized testing?
What would you suggest as more effective
Any Questions?
Picture Credits