CENG 571 Flow and Transport in Porous Media I Geology

CHBE 571
Flow and Transport in Porous
Media I
Geology, Chemistry and
Physics of Fluid Transport
4:00-5:30 PM M&W
with make-up on Friday
• Chapter 1 Subsurface Macro Structure
– Depositional environments
• Chapter 2 Subsurface Micro Structure
– Rock and soil minerals
Morphology of the pore space
Mineral surface chemistry
• Chapter 3 Rock Properties
– Grain size distribution
Pore shape
Pore size distribution
Surface area
Effect of stress
Chapter 4 Volumetric Flux: Darcy's Law
– D' Arcy's original experiments
Flow potential
Permeability tensor
Permeability micro-heterogeneity
Permeability anisotropy
Darcy's law from momentum balance
Non darcy flow
Chapter 5 Multiphase Pore Fluid Distribution
– Capillarity
Nonwetting phase trapping
Capillary desaturation
Normalized saturation for relative permeability and capillary pressure
Relative permeability models
Three phase relative permeability
Measurement methods
Chapter 6 Conservation Equations for Multiphase-Multicomponent Flow
Through Porous Media
– Fluxes in isothermal flow
Mass balance
Definitions and constitutive equations for isothermal flow
Special cases
Overall material balance
Chapter 7 Two Phase, One Dimensional Displacement
Chapter 8 1-D, Multiphase-Multicomponent Displacement
Dimensionless and normalized variables
Trajectories in distance-time space
Definition of waves
Mass balance across shock
Average saturation and recovery efficiency
Effect of gravity on displacement
Relation between mobility ratio and gravity number on displacement
Gravity drainage
Interference of waves
Overall Concentration and Fractional Flow
Differential Equations
Concentration Velocities in Multicomponent Systems
Self-Similar Solutions
Example with Two Dependent Variables
CO2 + Decane System
Surfactant Flooding
Chapter 9 Ion Exchange with Clays
Equilibrium and Electroneutrality Relations
Relationship between Composition of Electrolyte Solution and of Clays
Ion Exchange Waves
Calculation of Route, Profile, and History
Ion Exchange with Surfactant and Clays
Subsurface Macro Structure
Depositional Environments
Fundamental Mechanism for Grain Size Sorting
Eolian Deposits
Glacial Sediments
Alluvial Fans
Fluvial or River Deposits
Delta Sedimentation
Barrier Islands
Continental Shelf and Slope
Submarine Canyons and Turbidites
• igneous
• metamorphic
• sedimentary
– carbonate facies
– shaly facies
– sandstone facies
• deltaic facies
• turbidite facies
• deep water facies; pelagic sediments
– Siliceous ooze
– Calcareous ooze
– Marine clay
– evaporite facies
Depositional Environments
Fundamental Mechanism for
Grain Size Sorting
  R g 
 6 R  v
2 2
v  R  g 
Stokes Law
Re < 1
Eolian Deposits
Glacial Sediments
Alluvial Fans
Fluvial or River Deposits
Schematic representation of a fining-upward
sequence deposited in a meandering river
Delta Sedimentation
Fluvial channel sand in clay-rich delta
Barrier Islands
Continental Shelf and Slope
Turbidite Formations
Bouma model for turbidites
Vertical sequence through a submarine fan
Carbonate Facies
Carbonate Facies in a Reef
Alterations (Macroscopic)
structure map
Cross sections
Lithostratigraphic column through the Dan Field
Asg. 1.1 Subsurface migration of DNAPL
Attached is a contour map of the aquitard (confining formation at
the base of an aquifer at Operable Unit No. 2 in Hill Air Force Base in
Utah. The ground level is approximately 4694 ft. The water table is
seasonal and can vary from 20 to 30 ft below the ground surface.
Disposal trenches in the vicinity of U2-33 was used to dispose unknown
quantities of trichloroethylene (TCE) bottoms from the solvent recovery
unit and sludge from the vapor degreasers from 1967 to 1975. Dense
nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) has been found in a number of wells
and borings. Suppose 6 ft of DNAPL was discovered in U2-635. Shade
in the areas of the contour map where pools of DNAPL can be expected
to be pooled. Also using the attached graph, prepare a plot of a crosssection along the deepest part of the channel. Plot the following: (1)
elevation of the aquitard, (2) elevation of the expected DNAPL pools, and
(3) location of wells along the deepest part of the channel where DNAPL
is expected. Shade the intervals expected to be saturated by DNAPL in
these wells.
Permeability and DNAPL Saturation Logs
Geologic Time
Seismic Stratigraphy
Ground Water
Migration and Accumulation of Hydrocarbon
Migration and Accumulation of Hydrocarbon