Carbon Chemistry - David Brotherton CCCMC

Physical Science
Class Notes
Ch 9 Carbon Compounds
100,000 carbon compounds are being isolated each year.
90% of all known substances contain carbon.
Can combine with its self to form compounds
Can bond with many other elements
Existing carbon compounds can be rearranged to form new
Structural Formulas: Used to show the type, number and
arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
Isomer: Compounds with the same chemical formula but different
structural formula.
Types of Carbon Compounds
Organic Compounds: Any compound containing carbon.
Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and
Ex’s: Butane, pentane, octane, methane, propane etc.
Saturated Hydrocarbons: All bonds are single covalent.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Contain one or more double or
triple covalent bond.
Alkanes: Hydrocarbons in which all the bonds between carbon
atoms are single covalent bonds.
Ex’s: Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6)
Alkenes: Straight-chain or branched hydrocarbons in which one
pair of carbon atoms is joined by a double covalent bond.
Ex: Ethene, (C2H4), Propene (C3H6)
Alkynes: Hydrocarbons in which at least one pair of carbon
atoms is joined by a triple covalent bond.
Ex’s: Ethyne (C2H2), Propyne (C3H4)
*Alkynes are more reactive than alkenes, which are more
reactive than alkanes.
*Triple bonds are easier to break than doubles which are easier
to break than singles...
Naming the Three Types of Hydrocarbons
Alkane names end with ane.
Alkene names end with ene.
Alkyne names end with yne.
Ex: Ethane, Propane vs. Ethene, Propene vs. Ethyne and
Within each type, hydrocarbons are distinguished by their prefix,
which represents the number of carbon atoms contained in the
Meth= 1, Eth= 2, Prop= 3, But= 4, Pent= 5, Hex= 6, Hept= 7,
Oct= 8, Non= 9, Dec= 10
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons with a ring configuration
of six carbons joined by alternating single and double bonds.
Ex: Benzene (C6H6)
Substituted hydrocarbons: A compound in which one or more
hydrogen atoms in the chain or ring is replaced by a different
atom or group of atoms.
Alcohols: Substituted hydrocarbons in which one or more of
the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an –OH.
Ex: Ethanol (C2H5OH)
 The names of alcohols end with ol. Ex: Methanol,
Ethanol etc.
 The structural formulas for alcohols can be in chains or
Organic Acids: Substituted hydrocarbons that contain the
group –COOH.
 The names of organic acids end with oic. Ex:
Methanoic acid.
Esters: Substituted hydrocarbons with an -OH group and a –
COOH group.
 Known for their pleasant smell and flavors.
Halogen Derivatives: Substituted hydrocarbons in which one
or more of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by an atom of
fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.
Ex’s: Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl), Tetrachloroethane
Carbohydrates (Hydrated Carbon)
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen,
including: sugars, starches and cellulose.
*Many are isomers.
*Classified according to their size and solubility.
Monosacharides (simple sugars): Single chain or single ring
Chemical formula = (CH2O)2 or 1:2:1
C6H12O6 “Blood Sugar”
Deoxyribose C5H10O5
Disaccharides (double sugars): Formed when two simple sugars
are joined by dehydration synthesis.
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6  C12H22O11 + H2O
Glucose + Fructose  Sucrose + H2O
*Since they are too large to pass through cell
membranes, they must be broken down by hydration
reactions before utilized.
C12H22O11 + H2O  C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Sucrose + H2O  Glucose + Fructose
Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose)
From sugar cane
Lactose (Galactose + Glucose)
From Milk
Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
From **Starch**
*Starch: Naturally abundant carbohydrate, found
in the seeds, fruits, tubers, roots, and stem pith
of plants such as, corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice.
Readily available source of cellular fuel that is utilized
during cellular respiration. The byproducts are CO2 and
The bond energy released by cellular respiration is
transferred to the molecular bonds of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP).
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): Organic molecule that
stores and releases chemical energy for use in cells.
Glucose + O2  CO2 + H2O + ATP