STM-WM

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Summary: Iconic Memory

• Capacity: Very large • Duration: Very short • Transfer: Readout to STM • Loss: Phenomenon of backward masking (and its necessity!)

A Multi-store model of memory

• Benefits and limitations • First memory: sensory store • Next: Short term memory

Short term memory

• Current contents of memory • Fundamental bottleneck in processing • Multiple interpretations • Capacity • Duration • Transfer • Loss

Basic Operations of STM

• How things enter it • How things stay in it.

• How we search for things within it.

• How things leave it

Peterson & Peterson: Decay

Waugh & Norman: Interference

Sternberg: Memory scanning

STM-WM (an alternative view)

• Another way of looking at it (STM vs Working Memory) (Baddeley) • The "bottleneck" issue and an example or two.

• Beating the limits--the work of Chase and Ericcsson: chunks & retrieval structures.

• Finally, how do things move on--elaborative rehearsal

Baddeley: Model of Working Memory

Chase, Ericcsson & Staszewski: Retrieval Structures

Moving on: LTM

• Issues include – How things move on into LTM – Size of LTM – Is LTM “permanent”?

– Memory formation impairment

Permanence of LTM

• Work of Wilder Penfield • Size of LTM (on assumption of permanence) – 100,000,000,000 neurons x 10,000 connections = 10 15 – Input: time per percept 150 msec x 70 years x 10 4 bits per percept x 70 years = 10 14 bits – Optic nerve capacity10 7 10 16 bits.

bits per second x 70 years = – Pragmatic est. 100,000 words + 10,000 pictures + 75,000 chess patterns + 1000’s of episodes = 10 6 – But some argue that we forget most of what we input!

Long Term Memory Can be Long-term!

Earned an A grade- green, C grade- red (Study Hard!)

Most Famous Memory: HM

• Retrograde amnesia vs anterograde • Declarative (semantic + episodic) vs procedural distinction in memory type • How does this occur? –hippocampus and overlying cortical damage

Memory formation environmental effects

Memory operations in thinking:single/multiple codes?

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Stimulus Diagram Sentence 28.2 9.8 Vocal 11.3 13.8

Collins & Quillien Experiment

John Anderson (CMU) ACT Model

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