CC 2002 K

CC 2002 K
Information, Quantities and
The construction industry is unique in
its organisational nature.
Each construction project is unique in
it’s planning, organisation and operation.
During each construction project the
information needed, and the
construction problems are all different
from each other.
It is important that clear information is
relayed to whoever needs it.
It is important that information is
relayed at the right time.
It is important that any information is
clear and easily understood.
All of these help to ensure a successful
project delivered on time and as close
to budget as possible.
Relaying Information
It is important that people in a building team
work together to complete a project.
Information can be relayed on site and to
project personnel in a variety of ways.
It is important that all the members of a
construction team or project communicate
effectively with each other to avoid
unnecessary conflict.
Types and methods of
Day work sheets
Bill of Quantities
Purchase orders
Method statements
Risk assessments
Quality procedures
Fax message
E mail
Programme of work
A Specification is a term used for the set of
requirements that are to be met by materials,
products or services.
The Specification will identify which
materials or products are to be used in the
It will specify how they are to be used.
The specification will detail the standard of
quality that is to be met any materials or
work that is to be carried out.
Plastering Specification
A specification for plastering will give exact
details on the type of plastering required,
these may include:
Type and manufacturer of beads .
Types, materials and methods of fixings.
Background preparation.
Class, type and manufacturer of plasters.
Proportions of any gauged mortars.
Tolerances to be expected from workmanship.
A specification will accompany any
drawings that are produced for the
The project designer or architect will
liaise with the client to transfer their
building ideas into a set of drawings and
Architects can use standard
specifications that are produced by
various organisations to achieve the
right quality product for their client.
British Standards
Sources that produce specifications
include : British Standards, Building
Research Establishment (BRE) and
European Union Standards.
The British Standard covering
plastering and rendering is BS EN
13914-2 : 2005
British standards
The British Standards Institute (BSI)
has been in existence for over 100
It develops and tests a technical
standard and produces a formal
document for publication.
Codes of practice are produced from
the standard, which will cover the use
of a product in more detail.
Technical literature
The purpose of technical literature is to
provide details on products and systems.
It will tell you the latest products
available, what they are, their intended
use and applications, and guidance on
using them correctly.
Technical literature can include manuals,
pamphlets, product specification sheets
or catalogues.
You need to be aware of, and using
manufacturers technical literature to
be sure you are using the latest up to
date products and systems, that meet
the latest design and building regulation
British Gypsum
British Gypsum’s main
source of product and
system information is
the White Book.
This contains a wide
range of partitioning
and lining solutions,
specifications and
products, as well as lab
test results and an
overview of installation
British Gypsum
The White Book is
updated regularly to
make sure it is the most
up to date and
reference source.
The White Book is also
available online.
British Gypsum also
produce the Site Book
which gives step by step
guidance on installing
some of their products.
A tender package is a set of documents used
by clients project designer to establish a
quoted price for a project.
The documents will include a brief explanation
of what the project is, where it is and its
intended purpose.
Tender packages are first sent to main
contractors, who in turn will compile their
price by parcelling the tender to the relevant
sub contractors eg brickwork, roofing or
You do not have to pay to tender for a
Tender packages
In the tender package the tender process will
be clearly stated, where the tender is to be
returned to, who to and when the return
deadline date and time is.
The tender package will include drawings,
specifications, bill of quantities and the
The preliminaries will outline the basis of the
contract that will be awarded, it will set out
any damages that the contractor could be
liable for, the defects period for the
contractors work and the contractors
Quotes and estimates
What is the difference?
A quotation is a fixed price that cannot
be changed once accepted by the
This holds true even if you have to
carry out more work than expected.
If quoting, specify precisely what it
covers, any variations outside of this
can be charged additionally.
An estimate is an educated guess of
what a job may cost, but isn’t
To take account of possible
unforeseen developments, you
should provide several estimates
based on various circumstances,
including the worst case scenario.
An estimate should be written on
headed paper and include a full
breakdown of the required works and
An estimate should state what the
estimated price is for, and should
include the following :
Overall price
Breakdown which lists the components
of the price.
Schedule, detailing when you can start
the work.
A time period the estimate is valid for.
Any payment terms you may have.
Your full business contact details.
A Quote will commit you to the price
you specify.
Only use a quote if the work you are
quoting has clear requirements – in
terms of labour, materials etc.
Only use if your costs are stable.
You are confident the work is not going
to be more complicated than expected.
A written quote should include:
Overall price
Breakdown of price, what is covered,
what is not.
Period the quotation is valid for.
Time schedule for when the work will be
Your business full contact details.
Your payment terms or schedule.
What the
price covers
of price
Total price
terms and
Estimating Quantities
It is important to be able to accurately
measure, calculate and estimate
quantities of materials to ensure a job
runs smoothly, on time and keeps to
Plastering materials and payments are
calculated by using Area.
Work and wages are worked out by the
square metre.
Units of measurement
The construction industry measures
everything using the metric system :
millimetres, centimetres and metres.
Plaster, plasterboards and bricks are
calculated using square metres (area).
Screed, concrete is measured using cubic
metres (volume).
Plaster beads, cornice or skirting boards are
measured using linear metres (length).
Area is the surface of the floor or wall you are to work on.
Area is measured in SQUARE units.
m2 means square metres.
Square metres
To find the area of a wall in Square
metres :
Measure the length of the wall in
Measure the height of the wall.
Multiply the two measurements
together :
Length x Height = Area ( m2)
Square Metres (Area)
A wall 4 m long by 2 m high.
4m x 2m = 8 m2.
The area of this wall is 8m2.
If the wall was divided into 1m2 squares, there would be 8
Calculating materials
To find how many plasterboards are
needed to board a ceiling :
Find the area of the ceiling e.g:
4 m x 3 m = 12 m2 ( area of ceiling)
Find the area of the plasterboard.
Multiply the length by the width of the
board being used to board the ceiling :
1.800 x .900 = 1.62 m2( area of one
Divide the area of the ceiling by the
area of a plasterboard.
12 m2 ( area of ceiling ) divided by
1.62 m2 ( area of one plasterboard )
= 7.40
This means it will take 7.40
plasterboards to plasterboard a 12 m2
You always round up the end number, so
you will need 8 plasterboards to
complete the ceiling.
Allowing for waste
Making sure you have ordered the
correct amount of materials is essential,
if the job is to be completed on time
and to your budget.
Buying too much material is wasteful
and will cost you money.
Not ordering enough materials will cost
you time in completing the job, and
could cost you money, as the job will
stop while you wait for new supplies.
Wastage allowance
It is good practice when calculating
materials to allow an extra amount for
The usual allowance in plastering is to
allow 10 % for wastage.
Divide the number of plasterboards or
bags that you will need by 10 to
calculate the extra number of materials
you will need.
Calculating waste.
Example :
A 16 m2 ceiling divided by 1.62 m2 (area of a
board) equals 9.87.
Round up 9.87 equals 10.
It will need at least 10 boards to
plasterboard the ceiling.
We need to add 10% for wastage when
cutting boards to fit.
10 divided by 10 equals 1.
Add 1 to 10 equals 11.
We need to order 11 boards to plasterboard
the ceiling.
Volume and Cubic Metres
Materials such as screed and concrete
are ordered by the cubic metre.
When calculating materials for these
jobs you need to be aware of the depth
that the finished materials need to be.
Eg. A screed floor could be 40mm deep.
The symbol for a cubic metre is m3.
Calculating cubic metres.
To calculate the cubic metres (volume) of a floor:
Measure the length =12m
Measure the width =4.5m
Measure the depth =0.25m
Multiply the three measurements together.
Calculating volume
Volume = length x width x depth
Example :12 m x 4.5 m x 0.25m = 13.5
If a screed floor is 50mm deep the
50mm becomes 0.050m.
If a screed floor mix ratio is 3 : 1
This means 3 parts sand, 1 part cement.
Divide the volume of your floor by 4 to
calculate how much sand or cement you
will need to order.
Eg. 2 m3 divided by 4 equals 0.5 m3
Therefore 1 part cement equals 0.5m3.
3 parts sand equals 1.5 m3.
A 25kg cement bag is about 0.045m3.
0.5 m3 divided by 0.045 = 11 bags.
We need 1.5m3 of sand.
Slightly damp sand has a volume of 1.5
tonnes to the m3.
1.5 tonnes of sand = 1 m3
There are 1,000kg of sand in a tonne.
There are 40 25kg bags of sand in a
40 bags of sand = 1 tonne.
60 bags of sand = 1.5 tonnes = 1m3
We need 60 bags + 30 bags = 1.5m3
Linear metre
A linear metre is a unit of measurement.
A linear metre is a measure of one
metre in a straight line.
Items such as plaster beads, skirting
board, cornice and coving are measured
and ordered by the linear metre.
Drawings used in construction are used
to communicate technical information to
the different parties involved in the
build process.
Architects use standardised symbols,
methods and language so that everyone
can understand the information within
the drawing.
Block or Site plan
A Block or Site plan
shows the proposed site
from a birds eye view.
It shows the site in
relation to the
surrounding area.
It will show the location
of roads and buildings.
It will always show the
direction of North.
Floorplans are used to
show the proposed
layout of rooms, walls
and doorways in a
They will contain
information such as the
location of sockets,
radiators, doorways,
stairs and the type of
wall constructions.
Elevation Drawings
These will show the
front, side and rear of a
They will show how the
architect imagines the
building will look when
These are useful for
the local authority who
need a visual image of
the proposed structure
for the planning
approval process.
Detailed Drawings
These are used to
highlight or ‘zoom in’ on
components use in the
Detailed drawings are
used to show the
tradesperson how
different materials
interface and join
They are used to make
the technical aspects of
components clear to the
construction team.
Sections show the inside
of any part of the
building or component.
They are used to
provide a visual
explanation of different
parts of a building or
A section through a
cavity wall will show the
location of a cavity tray
over a lintel.
Reflected plan
A reflected plan is
used to show the
layout of a ceiling.
It can be used to
show how
plasterboards are to
be fixed in relation
to the joists or if
areas of a ceiling are
to receive no
In order to draw a full size building, the
drawing must be drawn to scale for it to
fit onto the drawing sheet.
A scale is a ratio to show how the size
of a real object compares to the size of
the same object when it is drawn or
made as a model.
A scale drawing is an exact replica of
something, but reduced in size.
A scale of 1:10
means that 1 cm on
the drawing equals
10 cm in real life.
This means that the
drawing is 10 times
smaller than the real
Symbols are used to
identify and represent
the different materials
and components used in
the build.
The same symbols are
used by all designers to
ensure everyone can
understand the
information on different
drawings by different
Bill of Quantities
A Bill of Quantities
is another method of
relaying information
about a project.
This document is
used as part of the
tendering process.
The Bill of
Quantities are
prepared by
Quantity Surveyors.
All the materials, parts, labour and their
costs for the project are itemised.
This enables a contractor or sub
contractor to price the work they are
bidding for.
A QS will prepare a BOQ by a ‘taking
off’ process where the cost of a
building is estimated from
measurements in the architects
They can create a cost estimate in
regard to the area of walls, floors and
also the number of doors, windows and
the plumbing, heating and electric
Bill of quantities need to be read in
conjunction with the specification for
the project when creating a price.
Read them carefully, check for linear
metres as well as square metres.
Make sure you understand where the
area of work is : is it high up? Will it
need scaffolding? What is the
background? Will it need special
Programmes of Work
Programmes of work
or Gantt charts are
used to plot and
monitor the progress
of works on site.
It is easy to see
what should have
been completed and
by when.
Programmes of work will normally be
found in the site office.
The Gantt Chart (program of work) is
the most common charting technique.
A Gantt chart will always show the start
and end dates of a project.
A Gantt chart can be used to show the
current status of the project against
the proposed schedule by shading the
completed task elements or by using a
vertical ‘Today’ line.
Gantt Chart
A timeline is stretched across
the top of the page.
The tasks
involved in
completing the
project are
listed down the
left side of the
Horizontal lines extend from
left to right across the page.
The horizontal line for each task starts below the timeline
date that marks the proposed start date of the task.
The length of the task line grows as the length of the time
allocated for the task grows.
The line for the task ends below the corresponding end date
for the task.
Some tasks can overlap others to speed up progress on site.
Why are Gantt charts useful?
When a Gantt chart is used, the entire
project plan is presented visually.
You will always know what you should be
doing, when you should be doing it, and
how long you should be spending on the
Why are Gantt charts useful?
Communication :
Project plans need to be shared with all
parties concerned with the project.
These parties could be management,
employees, contractors, suppliers or anyone
else involved with creating or managing the
Presenting a visual plan is much easier than
trying to explain the project verbally or in
Why are Gantt charts useful?
A Gantt chart helps you to stay
A Gantt chart ( program of work)
forces you to plan a project from start
to finish.
Chain of Command
A construction project needs a team of
people with very different roles and
responsibilities to work closely
For this team to work successfully, and
for the project to run smoothly, each
team member needs to know what they
are responsible for, and who they are to
report to.
The Project Team
There are three main categories of
work in the construction sector.
Professional: these people will generally
have a degree or similar qualification.
Job roles are : Building Surveyors, Civil
Engineers, Architects or Structural
Engineers and Site Agents.
The Craft sector of construction are
skilled trades that require some level of
Skilled trades are generally qualified up
to level 2 (Diploma, NVQ), although
electricians and plumbers usually need
to go to level three.
Job roles include : Bricklayers,
Plasterers, Joiners and Electricians.
The next sector is the Operative.
These are semi or unskilled jobs that do
not require the person to have any
These would be general labourers who
do labour intensive or unskilled work on
the site such as digging holes and
trenches, loading or preparing materials
for the craft workers and general
clearing up of the site.
The chain runs from the most important
person through a list of personnel with
varying degrees of responsibility.
Architect : leads the design team.
Transfers the clients wishes and
requirements into sketches and initial
concepts for the building design.
Architect Technician: produce all the
technical drawings, plans and sections
that are used during the build.
Quantity Surveyor : they are the cost
consultants for the construction
industry. Before a tender is compiled
they do all the cost planning, produce
specifications and Bill of Quantities.
They will prepare all tender and
contract documents and source sub
contractors if needed, for certain
elements of the project. They value all
on-going work on the project and are
responsible for approving and organising
any payments to contractors, sub
contractors and suppliers.
Site Engineer : they perform a technical,
organisational and supervisory role on a
construction project. They are responsible
for marking out the site, applying designs and
plans and liaising with sub contractors. Typical
roles for site engineers include setting out
(marking the position of structures) and
levelling the site, surveying the site, checking
drawings and ensuring calculations are
accurate for the work, liaising with any
consultants, sub contractors, supervisors,
QS’s and the general workforce on the
Contract Manager : they are responsible for
the management of contracts with clients,
vendors, partners or employees. It involves
the negotiating of terms and conditions in
contracts and ensuring compliance with the
terms and conditions, they will also document
and agree any changes that may arise whilst
the contract is in place and being used. They
help to ensure that the client is fully
informed of progress on site, and of any
problems or situations that may arise and may
need discussing between client, architect and
Site manager / Agent : this is the person in charge of
the building contract and therefore has to be aware
of, and in control of all aspects of site operations,
including the planning of site progress. It is the
managers responsibility to keep the operation to the
agreed build time and cost plans. The typical roles for
a site agent include : leading regular site meetings
with personnel including Quantity Surveyors,
Engineers, Foreman, Sub Contractors and the Client.
They are responsible for Quality Control checks,
including inspections of work, testing materials and
frequent tours of site.
They are to make sure that the project runs to
schedule and to budget, they also have to find
solutions to problems that may cause delays, such as
late deliveries of materials.
Foreman / Supervisor : the foreman or
supervisor is the person who is in charge of
their particular group of tradesmen. The
foreman / supervisor will generally have many
years experience in the particular trade. They
will have specialised knowledge of their trade,
have good communication, organisational and
problem solving skills. They will liaise with the
site agent to ensure their workers are where
they are supposed to be with reference to
the programme of work, inform the site agent
of any problems or hold ups associated with
their trade, and organise the materials and
work load of their workers.
General operative : labourers are
unskilled and carry out the basic labour
intensive work on site. Under the
direction of a foreman or supervisor
they will clean or clear a site, load
materials or un load deliveries, dig holes
or trenches for cables and any other
basic work which needs to be done.