Progress monitoring - Professional Development Management System

Multiple Sources of Data
RtI Documentation:
Understanding, Interpreting and
Connecting Data for Educational
Decision Making
Andrea Ogonosky, Ph.D., LSSP
A complementary relationship
between the RTI process and
psychoeducational testing exists in
evaluating for a potential learning
RtI: Problem Solving
Progress Monitoring
Progress Monitoring
Student Instructional Level
Supplemental Interventions
120 min per week additional
Student Instructional Level
Supplemental Interventions
90 min per week additional
Grade Level
Instruction/ Support
 Intervention Well Checks
 Observe in Tiers I and
 Consult with Teacher
 Review data weekly in
PLC/ Planning meetings
 Check data collection
 Talk to parent
From the Student Perspective The Team
Goal is to create…
Academic Learning,
Mastery, and
Social, Emotional,
and Behavioral
Independent Learner
How are you defining Tier 1 instruction and
strategies? Is there consistency with this
definition throughout your district?
What information are you using to determine
appropriate access to instruction?
Successful Data Collection
Use of naturally occurring data
Led by General Education, Supported by Special Education
Problem-Solving Model Implemented with Integrity
Systematic decision rules consistently implemented
Access to Technology to Manage and Document DataBased Decision Making
• Evidence of Improved Academic and Behavior Outcomes
for All Students
It is vitally important that there is an
understanding that there is continued
documented discussion and consultation between
the teacher, the team, and the interventionist(s).
Components Addressed When Using
Multiple Data Sources
• The interrelationship between classroom
achievement and cognitive processing criteria
– Classroom achievement
– Academic Deficit (RtI)
– Cognitive Processing
– Behavior
Balancing Assessments
-- Assessment systems
-- Multiple measures
-- Varied types
-- Varied purposes
-- Varied data sets
-- Balanced with needs
Multiple Data Sources
Criterion Referenced Assessment
Progress Monitor
Norm Referenced Assessment
Progress Monitor
Curriculum Based Measurement
Rate of Improvement
Universal Screen
Progress Monitor
Criterion Referenced Tests
• Most common type of test used by
• Criterion Referenced Tests measure
mastery of a subject based on specific
preset standards.
• The questions used in the test are
meant to show how much a student
knows and how that student’s
performance compares to
Problems with Mastery Measurement
Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical.
Performance can be misleading: assessment
does not reflect maintenance or
Assessment is designed by teachers or sold
with textbooks, with unknown reliability and
Number of objectives mastered does not
relate well to performance on high-stakes
Norm Referenced Tests
• Norm-referenced tests compare a
student's score against the scores of
a group of student’s who have
already taken the same exam, called
the "norm group."
• Score are often interpreted using
• Comparative in nature, aligned to
researched based developmental
and cognitive levels.
Curriculum Based Measurement
Describes academic competence at
a single point in time
Quantifies the rate at which
students develop academic
competence over time
Used to align and analyze effective
instruction and intervention to
increase student achievement
Types of Curriculum Based
• Universal Screening data on all
students provides an indication of
individual student performance and
progress compared to the peer
group’s performance and progress.
• Universal Screening data form the
basis for examining trends (or
patterns)on specific academic or
behavior skills.
Types of Curriculum Based
Progress monitoring documents student
growth over time to determine whether the
student is progressing as expected in the
designated level of instructional intervention.
Generally this is often presented in graph
District decision Rules
Selection of goal-level material
Collection baseline data and
setting of realistic or ambitious
Administration of timed,
alternate measures weekly
Application of decision-making
rules to graphed data every 69 weeks
• List Formative Assessments your
district/campus are currently using.
• List Progress Monitors your district/campus
are currently using. What norms?
• List Summative Assessments your
district/campus are currently using.
• How do you use this data to aid in
determining patterns of strengths and
Dr. O’s Suggestion
Begin with the End in Mind: STAAR, EOC
RtI Data Analysis
Achievement Data (Formative, Diagnostic)
Academic Deficit Verification
Hypothesis Generation
Cognitive Processing Data Collection
Component Data Review:
Consider the impact of
each domain relative
to the “problem”
Instructional decision making regarding
selection and use of materials
Clarity of instructions
Communication with expectations and
Sequencing of lesson designs
Pace of instruction
Variety of practice activities
Long range direction for instruction
Instructional philosophy
Instructional materials
Stated outcomes of the content/instruction
Pace of the steps leading to the outcomes
General learner criteria as identified in the
school improvement plan, LEA curriculum, and
Physical arrangement of the room
Management plans
Peer context
Task pressure
Peer and family expectations
This is the last domain to consider and is
addressed when:
The curriculum and instruction are
The environment is positive
This domain includes student performance
Existing Data Review
– Determine the student’s current grade
level/class status: academic progress
(grades, unit tests, district benchmark,
and work samples)
– Teacher description/quantifiable
– Parent Contact(s)
– RtI data
– Medical Information
– Classroom Observations (ICEL)
Analyze Multiple Data Sources
Begin With Universal Screening Data
Student score relative to cut-score in
identified area of concern.
 If below cut-score possible need for increased
intensity of supports (Tier 2)
 If above cut-score instruction is supported
through Tier 1 supports
Analyze Multiple Data Sources
Review Teacher Progress Monitoring Data
 Formative and Summative Assessments
 Are they differentiated to identified area of concern?
 Evidence of alignment to student variables (learning styles)
 How does student compare to class peers in the identified
area of concern
 Student Data
 Review student strengths in identified area of concern
 Review Student skill deficit/weaknesses in identified area
of concern
Determine Student Functional Levels
• Identified assets and weaknesses
• Identified critical life events, milestone
• Identified academic variables such as
“speed of acquisition” or retention of
• Identified issues of attendance,
transitions, motivation, access to
Classroom Achievement
Note: analysis of data assumes that the student has received
adequate opportunities to learn and reasonable instructional options
• Gather relevant and specific information
about the student's performance in the
general education curriculum (relative to
• Determine if a pattern of severe delay in
classroom achievement in one or more areas
has existed over time
• Provide information about the curriculum and
corresponding instructional demands
Classroom Achievement
Guiding question: What has been taught to the
student and how?
1. Does the student meet the educational
standards that apply to all students?
2. What are the academic task requirements for
students in the referred student's classroom?
3. Has the student received instruction on the
same content as the majority of students in the
same grade?
4. What are the student's skills in relation to what
has been taught?
Classroom Achievement
5. What is the range of student skill levels?
6. Are there any other student’s performing at
the same level as the referred student?
Classroom Achievement / Academic
Deficit : Sources of Data
Observation: at least 1 within each Tier of support
work samples: should be more than worksheets
error analysis: is it aligned with focused instruction?
criterion-referenced measures
task analysis
curriculum-based measures such as inventories. quizzes,
rubrics, running records, informal reading inventories
– record review: be careful not to dismiss the importance of
historical data
Analyze Multiple Data Sources
Analyze Diagnostic Data
 Student strengths and weaknesses relative to
identified area of concern
 What specific skills are lacking that present a barrier
for student progress?
 Need to know developmental acquisition of skills relative
to the identified area of concern.
 Is the identified skill deficit significantly below grade
 What effective practices are needed to address this skill
Analyze Multiple Data Sources
Review Progress Monitoring Data
What curriculum based measure is your
district using?
What norms are being used to set goals.
What ROI is expected?
Progress Monitoring
Ongoing and frequent monitoring of progress
quantifies rates of improvement and informs
instructional practice and the development of
individualized programs.
Integrity of Progress Monitoring
Selected progress monitoring tools meet all
of the following criteria:
(1) Has alternate forms of equal and controlled
(2) specifies minimum acceptable growth;
(3) provides benchmarks for minimum acceptable endof-year performance;
(4) reliability and validity information for the
performance level score are available.
What does your district use?
Rate of Improvement
• Typical Rate of Improvement - the rate of
improvement or the rate of change of a typical
student at the assessment.
• Targeted Rate of Improvement - the rate of
improvement that a targeted student would need
to make by the end of the instruction/intervention.
• Attained Rate of Improvement - the actual rate of
improvement the student ends up achieving as a
function of the intervention.
Integrity of Progress Monitoring
Both conditions are met:
(1) Frequency is at least weekly for Tier 1 and 2
students ;
(2) Procedures are in place to
ensure implementation accuracy (i.e.,
appropriate students are tested; scores are
accurate; decision making rules are applied
Additional Assessments (Tiers 2&3)
If there is a medical concern, you….
…. go to the doctor
If the doctor is not sure what is wrong…..
….. more tests are given
• What are the tests your campuses are giving
in Tiers 2 &3? Should be diagnostic in nature.
• What about progress monitoring? How are
they measuring growth?
Analyze Multiple Data Sources
Review Outcome Data
 Student score relative to peers on district
common or benchmark assessments
 Student score relative to peers on end of unit or
other identified summative assessments
 Student score relative to peers on state
Align Data Sources
Universal Screening
Progress Monitoring
Diagnostic Assessments
Outcome Assessments
 Does the data tell a clear and
concise story of the student’s
learning needs?
 If there is inconsistency team
must investigate why.
 Review integrity of instruction
Alignment to student needs
(Tier 1)
 Student variables
Scientific inquiry
• Triangulation: verification of a hypothesis or
identification of a pattern by comparing and
contrasting data
• The ARD committee must be confident that
the data collectively reveals a pattern
consistent with the definition of SLD.
• Data collected aligns with characteristics of
other disability conditions.
Scientific Inquiry
• Explore potential alternate explanations when
data is inconsistent
• Ask (and answer additional) questions if the
answer does not lie in the data
• Assessment data not only provides answer to
questions regarding eligibility, but it serves to
design instructional and behavioral
intervention strategies that are likely to
improve student learning
Improving SLD Identification Process
• In order to improve the diagnostic process,
you need to approach diagnosis and the FIE as
a compilation of formal and informal data.
• Problem Identification & Analysis–process of
assessment and evaluation for identifying and
understanding the causal and maintaining
variables of the problem
Cognitive Strengths/Assets and
• Measure abilities associated with the area of
academic skill deficit and abilities not associated with
the academic deficit
– Broad abilities, narrow abilities, and core cognitive
– Usually select a global measure for this, but can
do this with focused assessment of processes if
the referral is specific enough
• How efficient is the student’s learning process – if
deficiencies present they will interfere with/affect
Cognitive Patterns
• Some issues to consider:
– The cognitive deficiency must be normatively
based not person based; a weakness derived from
ipsative analysis (intra-individual) is not relevant
regardless of statistical significance
– Low achievement in the absence of any cognitive
deficiencies is not consistent with any processing
model of LD
Relationship of cognitive deficits to
academic deficits
• Determine the presence of a processingachievement consistency/concordance
– There is a need to have measured the narrow
abilities related to academic areas explained to
describe pattern.
• To do this step, must be familiar with the cognitive
processes that are associated with achievement
Diagnostic Conclusions
• The determination of a disability category,
(especially MR and LD) must be made through the
use of professional judgment, including
consideration of multiple information/data
sources to support the eligibility
determination.(TEA, §89.1040 Eligibility Criteria,
Frequently Asked Questions)
• Information/data sources = statewide assessment
results, formal evaluation test scores, RtI progress
monitoring data, informal data (e.g., work
samples, interviews, rating scales), anecdotal
Why is a Tiered Model Important to
SLD Identification?
“Need to Knows”
• Individual Differences in the Processes in the
Learner’s Mind or Brain
• Curriculum and Instructional Materials
• Teachers’ Delivery of Instruction / Classroom
Processing – Disability & Intervention
• Processing strengths and weaknesses
associated with diagnosing LD, but also
important and associated with other
• If learning depends on processing, then having
information about a student’s strengths and
weaknesses can assist in design of
interventions, selection of accommodations,
and determination of modifications
Main Processing Components to
Assess (Dehn, 2005)
Attention processing
Auditory processing
Executive processing
Fluid reasoning
Long-term retrieval
Phonemic awareness
Processing speed
Short-term memory
Successive processing
Visual Processing
Working Memory
Integrity of Diagnostic Data
Cognitive Processing Model:
(Fletcher, 2003): a multi-test discrepancy
approach…and carries with it the problems
involved with estimation of discrepancies and
cut points.
What is your district’s philosophy for defining
processing strengths and weaknesses?
Is your staff consistent with interpretation?
Lack of clarity around what is to be
accomplished is the biggest barrier to
assessment for eligibility that you will
Flawed logic….school staff understand the
role assessment and diagnostic data play
in decision making for struggling learners.
Underscoring the Problem
“Most teachers just don’t possess the skills to
collect data, draw meaningful conclusions, focus
instruction, and appropriately follow up to assess
results. That is not the set of skills we were hired
to do.”
Convergence of Data: What to Look For
• Increasing intensity of data collection aligned
with student need/response to interventions
• Diagnostic data that describes student
strengths, weaknesses and response to
• Documentation of supplemental instruction
aligned with diagnostic data
Putting It All Together
• Use achievement and RtI data to form
• Based upon hypothesis design normative
achievement and cognitive processing
assessment battery
When Assessing Consider:
• Rate of learning
• Level of academic
performance in one of the
8 areas for SLD
• Memory
• Processing speed
• Attention/concentration
• Visual motor integration
• Behavior
Executive functioning
Primary language
• Academic fluency
• Others?
All the data have been
collected…What constitutes a
convergence of evidence?
Essential Question
How can assessment team and parents
feel confident in making an
appropriate SLD eligibility decision?
Validating Underachievement
Students who demonstrate reasonable
progress in response to research-based
strategies and interventions should not be
determined eligible under the SLD category
even though they may have academic
What is reasonable progress?
Identifying a SLD is a complex task and requires
personalized, student-centered problem-solving.
It is predicated on a belief that scaffolded,
differentiated, high-quality general education
instruction can be effective for most children
and that only a few students demonstrate the
severe and persistent underachievement
associated with a SLD.
Good decisions are based on
A strong RTI
Sufficient data
collection and
• Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series. Hoboken, New
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
– Dehn, M.J. (2006). Essentials of Processing Assessment.
– Flanagan, D.P. & Alfonso, V.C. (2011) Essentials of Specific
Learning Disability Identification
• SLD Identification Using Multiple Sources of Data. Cheramie,
G. & Ogonosky, A. (2012). Presentation to Weatherford ISD.