Do you have a good memory? Write down one thing that you are having difficulty remembering. Keep this note and refer to it during this presentation. Think about how you can use the ideas we will discuss to help you remember this item. TOOL 1: Pay attention Before you can remember anything, you need to pay attention to it in the first place. You see and hear many things all the time. You must focus on the things you want to remember. Sensory memory--lasts a few seconds. How well do you pay attention? Which penny is the correct one? References: Nickerson, R.S., and Adams, J.J. (1979). Long-term memory for a common object. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 287-307. Weiten, Wayne (1995). Psychology: Themes and variations. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Short Term Memory Facts Once you pay attention to something, think about it. STM decides which information to throw away and which to send to long term memory. Usually holds 7 pieces of information at a time. Lasts three to twenty seconds. TOOL 2: Reflect Reflect on new information within 24 hours. Connecting new information to old is one way of reflecting that improves how much you will remember. Long Term Memory Facts How teachers use these facts It is possible to keep retention at 80% with the following review intervals: 0 minutes 20 minutes 60 minutes 9 hours 24 hours 48 hours 6 days 31 days 3 months Material presented Exercise on material Review questions at the end of the class Homework assignment Homework review Scaffolding Quiz Mid-term Final exam TOOL 3: Recode The brain likes organization. Organize the things you want to remember for better storage. Example Look at the following words for twenty seconds. Try to memorize as many as you can. apple hammer train orange lily daisy zebra car pear rose wrench squirrel airplane lion cherry pliers camel boat tulip saw Write down as many words as you can remember. Organizing the words would help Fruit Tools Transportation Flowers Animals apple, orange cherry, pear hammer, saw, wrench, pliers train, car, airplane, boat lily, daisy, tulip, rose, zebra, squirrel, lion, camel Try it with the following list of words. nine school two bank park ten store red restaurant table chair green desk pink bed blue three yellow couch twenty Grouping or chunking items to aid memorization has been used very effectively with dates and phone numbers. Which is easier to remember: 9093793281 or (909) 379-3281 19532048 or 1953-2048 TOOL 4: Create a story If you had to try to remember as many of the items shown below as possible or a long list of vocabulary, you could be much more successful if you created a story that used the items. TOOL 5: Acronyms, Acrostics Colors of the rainbow: Roy G. Biv red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet Planets: My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nectarines Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune TOOL 6: Visualize To memorize the 5 causes of the Civil War, visualize a baseball field with each plate and the pitcher’s mound representing a cause. Home plate 1st base 2nd base 3rd base Pitcher’s mound = railroad system = more money = navy = industry = more soldiers TOOL 7: Catchy Phrases, Songs Tongue twisters Jazz Chants Schoolhouse Rock tunes Popular songs that illustrate a variety of grammar rules and idiosyncrasies, like “Bang, Bang” by Cher to review common irregular past tense verbs Student- or teacher-created raps or songs, especially when set to the tune of well-known children’s songs or pop songs OTHER TOOLS: Paraphrase Summarize Explain it to someone else Fill in graphic organizers Draw pictures Write it over and over Make flash cards Take practice tests distance & dimension atmosphere moon gravity exploration OTHER SUGGESTIONS: Keep a positive attitude. Take plenty of breaks while studying. Neurons fatigue after 4 to 8 minutes. Your focus time equals your age. (18 years old = 18 minutes of quality focus time before you need a break.) Exercise and eat healthy food. Get plenty of sleep and reduce stress in your life whenever you can.