Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Jitka Krouská Eva Čechová FCH VUT 2005 History 9th century: Islamic physician and alchemist Ibn Zakariya al-Razi - heated green vitriol FeSO4 . 7H2O and blue vitriol CuSO4 . 5H2O dilute solution of sulfuric acid 13th century: German alchemist Albert Magnus 17th century: German-Dutch chemist Johann Glauber – burned sulphur with saltpeter (potassium nitrate - KNO3) 18th century: Joseph Gay-Lussac, John Glover – lead chamber process 19th century: Peregrine Phillips – contact process dilute - zředěný, saltpeter – ledek, lead chamber – Pb komora Physical and chemical properties molar mass 98,08 g/mol, dibasic acid appearance clear, colourless, corrosive, odorless oil, not flammable density 1,84 g/cm3 at 20°C boiling point 337°C melting point 10°C pKa 1,99 special form oleum (when high conc. of SO3 is added) viscosity 26,7 cP at 20°C solubility in water fully miscible (exotermic process) Manufacture of H2SO4 two basic methods: 1. lead chamber process 2. contact process Lead chamber process hot sulphur dioxide SO2 gas enters the reactor called a Glover tower mixes with nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2, dissolves in it some of the sulphur dioxide forms the acid (Glover acid about 78% H2SO4) mixture of gases (including sulphur dioxide and trioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen, oxygen, and steam) lead-lined chamber, reaction with water sulphuric acid is formed by a complex series of reactions condensation on the walls of the chamber (3 - 12 chambers in a series) chamber acid (contains 62% to 68% H2SO4) Glover tower – called after John Glover Contact process - based on the catalytic oxidation of SO2 1. Solid sulfur, S(s), is burned in the air to form SO2 S(s) + O2(g) -----> SO2(g) 2. In the presence of a vanadium catalyst (vanadium (V) oxide) – production of SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) -----> 2SO3(g) 3. SO3(g) is dissolved in 98% (18M) H2SO4, to produce disulfuric acid or pyrosulfuric acid, also known oleum, H2S2O7 SO3(g) + H2SO4 ------> H2S2O7 SO3(g) + H2O(l) -----> H2SO4(l) (slow) 4. water is added to H2S2O7 to form H2SO4 H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) -----> 2H2SO4(l) vanadium (V) oxide – V2O5 The sulphuric acid industry fertilisers, acid rain chemicals like laboratory reagent dyes and pigments catalyst iron and steel industry rayon and film industrial explosive pulp and paper industry, metal i., car i. electrochemistry (electrolyte) – lead accumulator raw material for manufacture of H3PO4, ... fertiliser – hnojivo, rayon – umělé hedvábí, raw material- surovina Health hazard pulmonary edema burning sensation coughing wheezing shortness of breath headache, nausea vomiting R/S statements: R: 35 S: 26, 30, 45 pulmonary edema – plicní embolie, burning sensation – pocit rozehřátí, wheezing – dýchavičnost, nausea – mdlo, vomiting - zvracení Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulphuric_acid http://www.akerkvaerner.com/Internet/IndustriesAndServices/Metals/AcidPl ants/SulphuricAcidConcentration.htm http://www.na-ag.com/NA_en/rohstoffe/roh_schwefel http://www.uyseg.org/greener_industry/pages/sulphuric_acid/2SulphuricAci dUses.htm http://www.pollutionengineering.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/products/BNP ProductItem/0,6654,150482,00.html http://www.noram-eng.com/technologies/sulphuric.html http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/5/chemistry/catalysis/catsch3pg4.h tml http://www.ausetute.com.au/sulfacid.html http://www.ratson.com/chemicals/sulfuric.htm Thank you for your attention!