Enabling Occupation - Canadian Association of Occupational

Researched and
written for the
Association of
The Evolving Canadian Guidelines
• Occupational Therapy Guidelines for Client-Centered
– 1983 (concepts, process, assessment)
– 1986 (intervention)
– 1987 (outcomes)
– 1991 (Consolidated)
– 1993 (Mental Health)
• Enabling Occupation: An Occupational Therapy Perspective
– 1997, 2002 (with Updated Preface)
• Enabling Occupation II (2007, 2013)
1. Project Team & National Consultation
2. Overview of the book
3. Section I-IV key models and reflections
I. Occupation
II. Enablement
III. Occupation-based enablement
IV. Positioning OT for leadership
Enabling Occupation II
Project Team
Primary Author, Chair:
Elizabeth Townsend
Primary Author:
Helene Polatajko
Project Manager:
Janet Craik
CAOT Team Members:
Claudia von Zweck
Kathy Van Benthem
11 National Advisory Panel members
61 Canadian Contributing Authors
12 Reviewers
7 Publication team members
National Consultation
 National Advisory Panel
 61 Canadian Contributing Authors
 CAOT Policy Orientation
 CAOT Web Page With Updates
 CAOT Website Survey Plus Bulletin Board
 CAOT Conference June 2006 Forum
 National Diversity Review
 Peer Review: Consumer, National & International
 French translation/review
Primary Authors
Elizabeth Townsend & Helene Polatajko
Amoroso, Bice
Backman, Catherine
Baptiste, Sue
Beagan, Brenda
Brintnell, Sharon
Brown, Jocelyn
Cameron, Deb
Cantin, Noémi
Caron Santha, Josiane
Clark, Jo
Cockburn, Lynn
Connor-Schisler, Anne
Craik, Janet
Davis, Jane
Dickinson, Randy
Doble, Susan
Donnelly, Catherine
Drummond, Hilary
Dubouloz-Wilner, C.-J.
Eftekhar, Parvin
Egan, Mary
Freeman, Andrew
Harvey, Andrew
Head, Brenda
Iwama, Michael
Jarman, Jennifer
Jongbloed, Lyn
Kirsh, Bonnie
Krupa, Terry
Kumas-Tan, Zofia
Laliberte Rudman, Debbie
Landry, Jennifer
Law, Mary
Lin, Nancy
Letts, Lori
Liu, Lili
Manojlovich, Mary
McKee, Pat
Molke, Daniel
Moores, Patricia
Pentland, Wendy
Picard, Huguette
Purdie, Lisa
Quach, Judy
Rappolt, Susan
Rigby, Patty
Rivard, Annette
Sedgwick, Amy
Shaw, Lynn
Stadnyk, Robin
Stewart, Debra
Stewart, Lynn
Sumsion, Thelma
Thibeault, Rachel
Trentham, Barry
Trudel, Louis
Versnel, Joan
von Zweck, Claudia
Zimmerman, Daniel
To herald an era of occupational enablement for
occupational therapists and our clients.
To honour our past, affirm our present, and
profile a future that is focused on occupationbased enablement.
Book Structure
Foreword: by Mary Law
Prologue: by Thelma Sumsion
Guidelines development; Cultural Location
Section I
Section II
Section III
Occupation: the core domain
Enablement: the core competency
Occupation-based Enablement
Section IV
Positioning Occupational Therapy
Epilogue, Glossary, Index, References
Why Read This Text?
This text honours the past, affirms the present, and
profiles a future for occupational therapy focused on
occupation-based enablement.
With its focus on occupation as core domain and
enablement as core competency, this book
addresses the age-old question,
What is occupational therapy?
What is Occupational Therapy?
“Occupational therapy is the art and science of
enabling engagement in everyday living, through
occupation; of enabling people to perform the
occupations that foster health and well-being; and
of enabling a just and inclusive society so that all
people may participate to their potential in the daily
occupations of life” (Townsend & Polatajko, 2007, p. 372).
How is Enabling Occupation II different from Enabling I?
Enabling Occupation (1997, 2002)
• Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP), the Person-EnvironmentOccupation (PEO) Model and the Occupational Performance Process Model (OPPM).
Enabling Occupation II (2007) presents the scholarship and evidence to firmly ground
occupational therapy in occupation and enablement.
• Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) which portrays
an occupational perspective that includes and extends beyond occupational performance;
• Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement (CMCE) which portrays a spectrum of
enablement skills based on enablement foundations (beliefs, values, assumptions,
concepts) to alert practitioners to the core competence and power relations in
occupational therapy’s client-centred practice; and,
• Canadian Practice Process Framework (CPPF) which portrays eight action points and
alternative pathways in the process of practice clients.
Enabling Occupation II:
The Three Key Models
Core Domain of Concern
Core Competency
Core Process
Section I
Occupation: The core domain of
concern for occupational therapy
To embrace human occupation as the core domain of
concern for occupational therapy.
To present our best understanding of human
occupation as it relates to occupational therapy.
Occupation: The Core Domain of
Concern for Occupational Therapy
1. Specifying the domain of concern: Occupation as
core Helene J. Polatajko, Jane Davis, Deb Stewart, Noémi Cantin, Bice
Amoroso, Lisa Purdie, Daniel Zimmerman.
2. Human occupation in context Helene J. Polatajko, Catherine
Backman, Sue Baptiste, Jane Davis, Parvin Eftekhar, Andrew Harvey,
Jennifer Jarman, Terry Krupa, Nancy Lin, Wendy Pentland, Debbie Laliberte
Rudman, Lynn Shaw, Bice Amoroso, Anne Connor-Schisler.
3. Occupational science: Imperatives for occupational
therapy Helene J. Polatajko (Editor), Daniel Molke, Sue Baptiste, Susan
Doble, Josiane Caron Santha, Bonnie Kirsh, Brenda Beagan, Zofia KumasTan, Michael Iwama, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Rachel Thibeault, Robin
The Taxonomic Code of Occupational
Performance (TCOP)
Basic Assumptions
Canadian Model of Occupational
Performance and Engagement CMOP-E
Models of Health
and Well-Being
Characteristics of Occupation
Section I: Reflections
• How to embrace occupation as the core domain
of concern in occupational therapy?
• How can the language systems enhance an
occupational perspective?
• How can the CMOP-E frame your practice beyond
performance to include modes of occupational
interaction such as occupational development,
capacity, repertoire?
• How can occupational science inform
occupational therapy practice?
Section II
Enablement: The core competency of
occupational therapy
To embrace enabling as the core competency of
occupational therapy.
To raise critical awareness about how
occupational therapists practice.
Enablement: The Core Competency
of Occupational Therapy
4. Enabling: Occupational therapy’s core
competency Elizabeth A. Townsend, Brenda Beagan, Zofia Kumas-Tan,
Joan Versnel, Michael Iwama, Jennifer Landry, Debra Stewart, Jocelyn Brown.
5. Enabling individual change Elizabeth A. Townsend, Barry
Trentham, Jo Clark, Claire-Jehanne Dubouloz-Wilner, Wendy Pentland, Susan
Doble, Debbie Laliberte Rudman.
6. Enabling social change Elizabeth A. Townsend, Lynn Cockburn,
Lori Letts, Rachel Thibeault, Barry Trentham.
Occupational Therapy Clients
Occupational Therapy
Enablement Foundations
Canadian Model of Client-Centred
Enablement (CMCE)
Enablement Continuum
Section II: Reflections
• How to imagine the scope of the client beyond the individual level?
• Can CMCE help with documentation and communication practices,
describing what we do?
• Can you define ‘enabling’ in ‘enabling occupation?’
• How do you avoid ineffective enablement?
• Can chapter 6 spark new ideas new opportunities for occupational therapy?
• Can we broaden our scope and have an impact on a greater number of people
if we consider our client as communities, organizations, or populations?
• Instead of waiting for referrals to come in can we act on behalf of populations
and uncover situations where there is occupational deprivation and offer
solutions that enable?
• What stories do you have on enabling social change?
Section III
Occupation-based enablement
To enable our clients to benefit from the full potential of a
practice focused on occupational enablement.
To bring structure and form to occupation-based practice
and to describe the how of occupational enablement.
Occupation-based Enablement
7. Occupation-based enablement: A practice mosaic
Helene J. Polatajko, Noémi Cantin, Bice Amoroso, Pat McKee, Annette Rivard,
Bonnie Kirsh, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Patty Rigby, Nancy Lin
8. Occupation-based practice: The essential elements
Helene J. Polatajko, Jane Davis, Noémi Cantin, Claire-Jehanne Dubouloz-Wilner,
Barry Trentham
9. Introducing the Canadian Practice Process Framework
(CPPF): Amplifying the context Janet Craik, Jane Davis, Helene J.
10. Using the Canadian Process Practice Framework:
Amplifying the process Jane Davis, Janet Craik, Helene J. Polatajko
The Breadth of Occupation
Therapy Focused on Enablement
Canadian Practice Process Framework
Fit Chart
Section III: Reflections
Do you see how practice fits into figure 7.1?
Can the five essential elements of practice help you define your scope of practice
(along with you knowledge, skills, regulations)?
In the absence of evidence to support our practice, consider how abductive
reasoning legitimizes what we do.
Can Figure 8.2 Fit Chart help you in abductive reasoning and lead you to sound
clinical decisions to help address client occupational issues?
Can you structure documentation practices around CPPF?
Could you use CPPF interprofessionally in your practice?
Section IV
Positioning occupational therapy for leadership
To position Canadian occupational therapists as world
leaders in advancing an occupational therapy vision of
health, well-being, and justice through occupation
To advance the vision by escalating scholarship in
practice, accountability, and access to occupational
Positioning Occupational Therapy
for Leadership
11. Escalating participation in scholarly practice for
enabling occupation Elizabeth A. Townsend, Mary Egan, Mary Law,
Mary Manojlovich, Brenda Head.
12. Accountability for enabling occupation: Discovering
opportunities Elizabeth A. Townsend, Andrew Freeman, Lili Liu, Judy
Quach, Susan Rappolt, Annette Rivard
13. Funding, policy, and legislative opportunities Elizabeth A.
Townsend, Lyn Jongbloed, Robin Stadnyk, Hilary Drummond
14. Occupational therapy workforce planning Elizabeth A.
Townsend, Claudia von Zweck, Sue Baptiste, Terry Krupa, Huguette Picard,
Louis Trudel
Occupation II
Second edition
Leadership in Enabling Occupation
(LEO) Model
Section IV: Reflections
How can we escalate practice through scholarship and accountability?
Can we exert our power through language of occupation?
How can we escalate practice through funding and workforce planning?
Be forward thinking and envision what the ideal practice would/could be.
Consider what strengths and challenges are faced in the practice setting and what
strategies can be used to enhance enabling occupation through the 4 forces of
scholarship, accountability, funding and workforce planning
Critical Reflections
• How can you “herald an era of occupational enablement for occupational
therapists and our clients”?
• How can you attend to diversity in the profession and clients?
• How can you position the profession – politically, strategically,
Articles relating to Enabling Occupation II
Craik, J., Townsend, E., & Polatajko, H. (2008). Introducing the new guidelines – Enabling
Occupation II: Advancing an Occupational Therapy Vision for Health, Well-being,& Justice
through Occupation, OT Now, 10 (1), p. 3-5.
Fazio, K., Hicks, E., Kuzma, C., Leung, P., Schwartz, A., & Stergiou-Kita, M. (2008) The
Canadian Practice Process Framework: Using a conscious approach to occupational
therapy practice, OT Now, 10 (4), p. 6-9.
Stadnyk, R., Phillips, J., Sapeta, S., MacAulay, A., Champion, M., Tam, L. & Craik, J. (2009).
The Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement: Reflections from diverse
occupational therapy practitioners. OT Now, 11(3), 26-28.
Zhang, C., McCarthy, C. & Craik, J. (2008). Students as translators for the Canadian Model of
Occupational Performance and Engagement, OT Now, 10 (2), p. 3-5.