Unit I- 8000 BCE - 600 B.CE Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY Changes resulting from Neolithic Revolution What happened to food supplies? Human population? Occupations? Gender differences? Agricultural skills, technology and use of animals to control production increased production efficiency and food supply Increased due to longer life spans and more children to tend land and animals Fewer people needed to produce food creates new occupations and specialization like priests, traders and builders Distinction develops between agricultural societies and nomads (hunter/gatherers) Patriarchial systems developed where men held power in family, government, and economy as women become responsible for domestic home duties (Banpo- China- Matriarchial) Nature of civilization What are the central characteristics of civilization? Large cities dominating the countryside around them in order to guarantee food supplies Public building projects and monumental architecture Complex political organization to coordinate activities and protect population using authority systems based on kinship, military prowess, and merit or ability. Written language to communicate multiple ideas and large amounts of information Specialization of labor evolving from increased food production and improving overall quality of life through engineers, traders, artists and bureaucracies to serve community Growth of art and literature serves to enrich and preserve culture Long distance trade with other civilizations leading to cultural diffusion, spreading and sharing material culture (pottery, tools, textiles) and nonmaterial culture (beliefs, customs values and ideas) Civilization Pro’s and Con’s Advantages of Civilization Disadvantages of Civilization Specialization of skills, inventions, arts and literature Economically and politically coordinated cities Increased ability to protect population from internal and external dangers Improved quality of life and prosperity Increase class and gender distinctions create oppression and inequality Overproduction of land and depletion of resources with increased population Increased threat from “outside” attracted to wealth and internal crime promoted by crowded conditions and inequality Creates life threatening congestion, pollution, disease Recurrent theme in successive time periods and multiple societies between rural and urban lifestyle divisions Indo-European Migrations: 4m-2m BCE “The Crossroads of Three Continents” Mesopotamia “Land between the Rivers” The Ancient Fertile Crescent “The Cradle of Civilization” Effects of cities Cities bring massive changes to human life Alter physical environment (agricultures, slash and burn, ziggurats) New means of transport (wheel, sailboat) need generated by lack of natural resources Metallurgy new use for metals (tools, weapons): the beginning of Bronze Age Human organization and structure changes (governments) Division into social classes (royal, religious, landholding) Specialization (scribes, artisans, traders, warriors, farmers) Record keeping needed lead to development of language and writing Characteristics of city states 1. Scale / physical size, population, and territory controlled are greater Chatal Hayuk 5000 to Sumer and others 40 - 50,000 2. Religion / Power rests in the hands of priests ( Theocratic Socialism ) and prestige and power of royalty derived from religious domain By 2800 B.C.E. kings became hereditary position Role of religion City is center for religion (ziggurats as homes to Gods) Importance of priests increases Sacred marriage in New Years ceremonies Royal tombs for kings emphasizes religious role 3. Specialization / specialists with defined roles establish hierarchical classes 4. Trade & Markets / contributes to economic and social complexity and growth 5. Monumental architecture / Impress residents and enemies 6. Writing develops from pictograms to ideograms to cuneiform Record keeping and literature leads to Epic of Gilgamesh and codes of law Mesopotamian Civilizations Sumerian 5000 - 3000 B.C.E. Gilgamesh, Ur, Uruk [Southern Iraq] Akkadian 2400-2100 B.C.E. Sargon I aka Nimrod, Babylon, Ninevah [central] Assyrian 2000-1500 B.C.E. / 1500-1000 B.C.E. [Northern] Babylonian 1800-1300 B.C.E. / 700-500 B.C.E. Hammurabi to Nebuchadnezzer [Central Iraq] Rise of Sumer Migration of Sumerians to Mesopotamia (4000 B.C.E.) Opportunity and need combine to create city Challenges of river valley (floods and farming create need for irrigation) Lack of natural resources encourages long distance trade Need for protection and aggression results in disputes over resources Age of warring cities (Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur) 3300 - 2350 B.C.E. Creation of the first empires (control of other lands and people) Eventual creation of city-states and unified empires Sumerians Ziggurat at Ur Temple “Mountain of the Gods” Sumerian Religion Polytheistic Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods Mesopotamian Trade “The Cuneiform World” Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing Cuneiform Writing Deciphering Cuneiform Sumerian Scribes “Tablet House” Sumerian Cylinder Seals Gilgamesh Gilgamesh Epic Tablet: Flood Story Sumerian Innovations Wheel [from pottery wheel] Cuneiform Astronomers Arithmetic base of 10 and 6 Clock of 60 seconds, minutes, 12 hours, 12 months Military formations Codified law /administration [govt] Agriculture and irrigation Wheat, barley, sheep, cattle Akkadian Empires The first “empire” Sargon of Akkad: The World’s First Empire [Akkadians] The Royal Standard of Ur Skilled artisans Board Game From Ur Akkadian Innovations Given credit for the world’s first empire Sargon of Akkad aka Nimrod Multiethnic centrally ruled empire Euphrates River to Mediterranean with parts of modern-day Iran,Syria, Anatolia, and Arabian Peninsulas Continuation of Sumerian civilization and innovations Assyrian Empires “A land bathed in blood” ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Assyrian Empire Assyrian Military Power Assyrian soldiers carrying away the enemy’s gods. Jewish Captives: c 8 BCE Assyrian Innovations During this time, metal technology evolves to work with Bronze Mostly known for military prowess: excavation of city walls, battering rams, corps of engineers, pontoons, “life” jackets Combines Sumer and Akkad lands Fertile Crescent, Egypt, Anatolia with the capital at Nineveh Babylonian Empires Hammurabi to Nebuchadnezzer Ishtar Gate Hanging Gardens of Babylon and tower of Babel Israelites in Captivity Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur The Babylonian Empires Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.] Code Hammurabi, the Judge Babylonian Math Babylonian Numbers Nebuchadnezzar II’s Babylon Babylon under the Chaldeans Babylonian Innovations Recorded laws and customs- first major collection of laws “Eye for an Eye, tooth for a tooth” Sharp division of classes- nobles, priests, artisans, merchants, farmers, slaves Women could own property* Strong paternal role Business practices-such as loans, contracts Astrology First fell to Hittites (Iron) and eventually Fell to Persians Works Cited Bentley, Jerry H. and Ziegler, Herbert F. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. 4th Edition. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. 2008. Bulliet, Richard, Daniel R. Headrick David Northrup, Lynman L. Johnson, and Pamela Kyle Crossley. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2005. Spodek, Howard. The World's History, Third Edition. 3rd ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2006.