CHEE_392_-_Words_to_know-Processing[1] - P

CHEE 392 Project - Controlled Radical Polymerization – Processing Group
Client: Mr. Benoit Lessard, M.Eng
MEMO: 1 - 05/11/2009
Group 4:
Gomez, Dominique
Haroon, Anim
Ibrahimian, Nanor
MacKay, Sarah
Valla, Sebastien
To be successful in perusing this project a certain base knowledge in recent polymerization techniques is
required. To help you reach a necessary knowledge level, I have compiled a list of words and expressions
which will be used often and will be needed to explain your project to others effectively. Please take the
time to research the meaning of all these words in the context of Controlled Radical Polymerization.
Controlled free radical polymerization (CRP)
 A free radical can be defined as “a group of atoms having an unpaired electron (free electron)
which can covalently bond to an unpaired electron (Free electron) of an other molecule.”
Free Radical initiators are Chemical Compounds which posses a weak Covalent bond that easily
break into two free radicals when subjected to heat.
Peroxides, Hydro Peroxides are examples of this type
H2O2 — 2HO
A simplified three stage for the mechanism of free Radical Polymerization of Vinyl monomers is
i. Initiation.
ii. Propagation.
iii. Termination.
Nitroxide mediated controlled free radical polymerization (NMP)
Synthesis, Bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, Chain extension
The polymerization of a monomer in the absence of any medium other than a
catalyst or accelerator. The monomers are usually liquids, but the term also applies
to the polymerization of gases and solids in the absence of solvents.
Solvent, Non solvent, precipitation
Reactive blending, extruder, hot press
Mixing process that is accompanied by the chemical reaction(s) of components of a polymer
Note 1: Examples of reactive blending are: (a) blending accompanied
by the formation of a polymer-polymer complex, (b) the formation of
block or graft copolymers by a combination of radicals formed by the
mechano-chemical scission of polymers during blending.
Note 2: Reactive blending may also be carried out as reactive
extrusion or reaction injection molding (RIM).
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
Stress, Strain
Modulus of elasticity
Glass transition temperature
Yield stress, percent elongation
Number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw)
Maleic Anhydride, Styrene, Nylon, KratonTM
For you and everyone’s safety I recommend all of you to read the MSDS for the following compounds:
Tetrahydrofuran (THF)
1-4 Dioxane
Nitrogen (N2)
Maleic Anhydride
Compatibilizer of polymers:
The development of polymer blends, composites and laminates is a very active area of science and
technology; of great economic importance not only for the plastics industry but also for many other
industries where the use of such products is becoming increasingly more common. Even worse is the fact
that they also have less compatibility than would be required in order to obtain the desired level of
properties and performance from their blends. Compatibilizers are often used as additives to improve the
compatibility of immiscible polymers and thus improve the morphology and resulting properties of the
blend. Similarly, it is often challenging to disperse fillers effectively in the matrix polymer of a composite,
or to adhere layers of polymers to each other or to other substrates (such as glass or metals) in
laminates.Continued progress in the development of compatibilization technologies is, hence, crucial in
enabling the polymer industry to reap the full benefits of such approaches to obtaining materials with
optimum performance and cost characteristics.
We can talk about nylon, blending compatibilizers, what happens when we blend