# Chemistry 5.1 Notes

```Models of the Atom…
A. Who was he???
1. Danish physicist
2. Student of Rutherford
B. Proposed – electron is found in specific
paths or orbits
1. energy levels
2. electrons can move b/t each other
a. based on energy absorbed or lost
C. Quantum – amount of energy required to
move an electron from one level to another
D. Only explained hydrogen atom…
A. What is it???
1. Schrodinger – 1926
2. Based on probability (mathematically)
3. Restricts electrons to certain values or
areas
4. No paths or orbits…
A. Def – a region of space where there is a high
probability of finding an electron.
B. Energy levels (n)
1. 1, 2, 3, 4…and so on
2. each energy level can have different #’s of
orbitals with different types of shapes…
C. The 4 Orbital Shapes…s, p, d, f
1. s = spherical
2. p = dumbbell
3. d = cloverleaf (4 out of 5)
4. f = tough to describe
*Every orbital can contain at most 2 electrons*
D. When n = 1…
1. has one sublevel  1S
2. s always has 1 orbital
E. When n = 2…
1. has two sublevels 2s and 2p
2. 4 orbitals total
a. 2S = 1
b. 2P = 3 (Px, Py, Pz) (pg.131)
-all perpendicular to each other
F. When n = 3…
1. has three sublevels 3s, 3p and 3d
2. 3S = 1
3P = 3
3D = 5 orbitals
3. 9 orbitals total
G. When n = 4…
1. 4S = 1
4P = 3
4F = 7
2. 16 orbitals total
4D = 5
Energy Level
Number of
Sublevels
Type of Sublevel
N=1
1
1s (1 orbital)
N=2
2
2s (1 orbital), 2p (3 orbitals)
N=3
3
3s (1 orbital), 3p (3 orbitals),
3d (5 orbitals)
N=4
4
4s (1 orbital), 4p (3 orbitals),
4d (5 orbitals), 4f (7 orbitals)
```