Eveline_James Joyce 2011WIN

Eveline’s Passive Posture 35
In contrast, the evening has invaded the
avenue…used as a metaphor
Paralysis: a theme in Dubliners, a
collection of short stories by James
Joyce published in 1914
Physical dimension vs. spiritual
The word paralysis appears in “The
Sisters,” the first story in Dubliners.
Belfast 35
Largely a ‘Protestant city in the north;
Symbolic of commercial aggressiveness and
‘philistine ‘bumptiousness
‘philistine: a person who is lacking in or
hostile or smugly indifferent to cultural
values, intellectual pursuits, aesthetic
refinement, etc., or is contentedly
commonplace in ideas and tastes.
Bumptious: offensively self-assertive: a
bumptious young upstart.
The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation, also called the
Protestant Revolt or simply The
Reformation, was the European Christian
reform movement that established
Protestantism as a constituent branch of
contemporary Christianity. It began in 1517
when Martin Luther published The NinetyFive Theses.
Martin Luther
(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546)
a German priest and
professor of theology
who initiated the
Protestant Reformation.
Strongly disputing the
claim that freedom from
God's punishment of
sin could be purchased
with money, he
confronted indulgence
salesman Johann
Tetzel with his NinetyFive Theses in 1517.
Pathways to salvation
Merit vs. grace
Luther taught that salvation is not earned by
good deeds but received only as a free gift of
God's grace through faith in Jesus as
redeemer from sin. His theology challenged
the authority of the pope of the Roman
Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is
the only source of divinely revealed
knowledge; and opposed sacerdotalism by
considering all baptized Christians to be a
holy priesthood—democracy?
Close Reading 35
His father was not so bad then.
Not so bad means not too good
Then vs. now
What is the root reason for Eveline’s
Father’s character flaw
Mother’s death--illness
Anadiplosis 36
for smooth transition
…to leave her home. 35
Home! (36)
Anadiplosis (pronounced /ænədɨˈploʊsɨs/,
AN-ə-di-PLOH-sis; from the Greek:
ἀναδίπλωσις, anadíplōsis, "a doubling,
folding up") is the repetition of the last word
of a preceding clause. The word is used at
the end of a sentence and then used again at
the beginning of the next sentence.
Broken har’monium 36
pun on “broken harmony”
Broken harmony in
the house
an organlike
keyboard instrument
with small metal
reeds and a pair of
bellows operated by
the player's feet.
Keeping promise 36
Warrant in an argument
Underlying the claims in are
warrants, the inferences or
assumptions that are taken
for granted by the writer
(and sometimes by the
argument). Warrants
connect (conspicuously or
inconspicuously) the claim
and the support (evidence);
they derive from our cultural
experiences and personal
Freudian concept
Moral police
In stiff/dogmatic
practice, super-ego
could be
suppressive since it
won’t take into
account the conext;
Margaret Mary Alacoque 36
Saint Margaret Mary Ala’coque
(22 July 1647 – 17 October 1690)
a French Roman
Catholic nun and
mystic, who
promoted devotion
to the Sacred Heart
of Jesus in its
modern form.
Be’atified and
Melbourne 36
a seaport in and the
capital of Victoria, in
SE Australia.
The Irish migrated in
vast numbers from
1854 to World War I.
The Irish famine of the
1840s caused large
numbers of people to
migrate due to poverty
and difficult living
Double Negative/Litotes 37
Rhetorical Device
A double negative
occurs when two
forms of negation
are used in the
same clause.
Thus they cancel
one another and
produce an
affirmative sense;
Doubled negatives
can actually
intensify the
negation. The
rhetorical term for
this effect, when it
leads to an
affirmation, is
Litotes is a form of understatement,
always deliberate and with the intention
of emphasis.
An understatement, esp. that in which an
affirmative is expressed by the negative
of its contrary, as in “not bad at all.”
``She was not a little upset'' for ``She
was extremely upset.''
The Bohemian Girl 37
The Bohemian Girl is an opera
composed by Michael William Balfe with
a li’bretto by Alfred Bunn. The plot is
loosely based on a Cervantes (29
September 1547 – 23 April 1616) was a
Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright.
tale, La Gitanilla.
Bohemian 37
Bohemia (green) in relation to the
current regions of the Czech Republic
1. a native or inhabitant
of Bohemia.
2. ( usually lowercase )
a person, as an artist or
writer, who lives and
acts free of regard for
conventional rules and
The Strait of Ma’gellan 37
The Strait of Magellan comprises a
navigable sea route immediately south of
mainland South America and north of Tierra
del Fuego. The waterway is the most
important natural passage between the
Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, but it is
considered a difficult route to navigate
because of the unpredictable winds and
currents and the narrowness of the passage.
Fallacies (Chapter 13 in FM)
I know these sailor chaps… (37)
Review fallacy types (Frames of Mind,
619 – 621)
Failed to take into account of an
Treat Frank as a type, not as an
Cookie-cutting style
Significant Repetition
Thematic Emphasis 38
Her promise to her dying mother
Moral weight
Religious dimension
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
by Max Halberstadt, 1921
founded the
school of psychiatry,
best known for his
theories of the
unconscious mind
and the defense
mechanism of
Pre-Freudian Age
In his later work, Freud proposed that
the human psyche could be divided into
three parts: Id, ego, and super-ego.
Freud discussed this model in the 1920
essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle,
and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego
and the Id (1923), in which he developed
it as an alternative to his previous
topographic schema (i.e., conscious,
unconscious, and preconscious).
The super-ego
Moral Police, dogmatic practice
paralysis in James Joyce’s Term
The super-ego is the moral component of the
psyche, which takes into account no special
circumstances in which the morally right thing
may not be right for a given situation.
The theory of ego defense mechanisms has
received empirical validation, and the nature
of repression, in particular, became one of
the more fiercely debated areas of
psychology in the 1990s.
Fallacy 38
Damned Italians! Come over here!
Review the list of fallacies (Fames of
Mind, 619 to 621)
Eveline’s Dilemma:
Trapped or Trashed?
Metaphor: trapped/trashed
Alliteration: repetition of a particular sound
in the first syllables of a series of words
and/or phrases.
Claim: Though Eveline, the title character in
James Joyce’ short story published in 1914,
has a job, food, shelter, and folks whom she
knows very well, the harsh fact remains that
she has been trapped at home in more than
one way.
Eveline should leave
Evidence: Low-paying job, a hard life, an
abusive father, etc., (Climactic
Order/chronological/Linked—one thing leads
to another/parallel structure)
Warrant: an unhappy life is not worth
living/everybody is entitled to happiness; [had
her mother known her miserable situation,
even her dead mother would encourage her
to get out of this trap—because] a mother
would like to have all the best for her
More Warrant
Evidence: By staying home with her
father, Eveline’s personal safety is called
into question since her father has
become more and more abusive.
Warrant: All children are entitled to
safety and security, especially for a
young woman
ironically unsafe at home! (against
readers’ assumption/general principle)
Take a step back/
Make a concession/then turn
back to your own argument
Granted/Of course/admittedly…
One should keep one’s promise;
However, things are different now. Her
father has becoming more and more
Therefore/All things considered…
Eveline should leave for a new life…
Though it seems exciting to start a new
life, there is no guarantee Frank’s love
for her would last; she might be trashed
since she is unskilled, far away from
her home country;
Warrant: out of security concern,
especially for a young woman in a
foreign country;
Eveline should stay
Warrant: One should keep his or her
promise, especially to a dying person;
It is her duty to keep her family together;
Monologue vs. Dialogue
Michael DiYanni’s Example
4 to 6 sources (primary/secondary)
One voice
One perspective
One point of view
Intellectual blind
More interesting if
another perspective
is integrated into
your argument
Ethos: character of
the author
(rhetorical effect)